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Sara, Sujin, Lizzy, Maggie

maggi e

on 27 July 2014

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Transcript of SLEEP

Sara, Sujin, Lizzy, Maggie
The Science of Sleep
the science
Scientists have not been able to determine the reason why sleeping is a necessity, only the fact that humans cannot physically survive without sleeping.
Randy Gardner
Impact on general health
Tips and Strategies
Impacts of sleep on academic performance
11 days (266 hours) without sleep
hour cycles
minute cycles
(circadian rhythm)
(ultradian rhythm)
the human body largely depends on
light and dark cues
as an inherent biological function
in a circadian rhythm one would naturally begin to feel tired at
had the body clock been reset
this internal clock can be found in the
suprachiasmatic nucleus
in the hypothalamus
with ultradian rhythms, people typically wake up at the end of a 90 minute sleep cycle unless disturbed by external interruptions
this means that getting more sleep is not necessarily better - a ‘good night’s sleep’ would have to take into account your sleeping schedule, sleep hygiene, and your biological body clock
Non-Rapid Eye Movement
can further be divided into four different stages dependent on the depth of the sleep and the brain itself
N1 is the ‘lightest’ part of sleep and N4 the ‘deepest’
essentially a less responsive brain with low activity while the body is still capable of normal movements (such as shifting in bed).
brain activity during sleep can be monitored by a variety of neurology-based devices
come in the form of electrodes that are placed on the
and measure tiny
emitted by the synapses in the cerebral cortex
these are graphed as wavy lines called brain waves.
are electrodes placed in the
eye area
to monitor
eye movement
and measure voltage as the person sleeps
are in charge of electrical activity occurring in
and are usually attached to the
the sleeper is relatively conscious and can easily be woken
this is often in the form of ‘sleep starts’ or
hypnic jerks
as the person drifts between wakefulness and unconsciousness in a hypnagogic state.
generally takes up
of total sleep
lasts for around
of human sleep
involves relaxing of the muscles, decrease in eye movements, less body movement, decreased heart rate and slower breathing pattern
this is when fragmented thoughts and images flicker through the mind due to the brain waves having a
greater amplitude
as sleep becomes deeper
besides delta waves stage two also emits special waves known as
K complexes
sleep spindles
stages three and four release an even higher voltage of brain waves
the brain eventually lapses into a stage where it is extremely difficult to be woken by external stimuli.
Rapid Eye Movement
when most
takes up most of babies’ sleep (0-12 months) and generally declines as one ages
in REM sleep, the eyes rapidly move back and forth or up and down
it is thought that this motion is linked to the experience and visualisations of dreams, but neither EEGs, EOGs nor EMGs have been able to explain the science behind dreaming
while our muscle tone during NREM sleep is relatively normal, REM sleep almost completely
our entire body, with the exception of the vital internal muscles such as the heart, diaphragm and eye muscles.
The sleep cycle, which occurs four to six times in a typical night’s sleep
"the human brain shuts down entirely in order to allow a person to rest"
brain scans have shown an equal amount of internal activity during sleep, especially in the form of delta waves.
growth hormones and
are also secreted in larger amounts by the endocrine system.
common misconceptions
"adults require less sleep as they age"
adults simply become less capable of maintaining healthy sleep as they get older due to certain health problems, susceptibility to noise and distraction or heightened levels of stress in day-to-day life.
'Good sleep' must take into account not only your quantity of sleep but the quality.
Although teenagers require 9-10 hours of proper sleep each night, this number is gradually decreasing due to a number of reasons:

increased stress levels
opportunities for distraction
inconsistent sleeping schedule
belief that they have ‘adapted’ to fewer hours of sleep, although their health will still deteriorate
hormonal change in the body clock, causing them to be more alert and awake at night than in the morning
These are also the main reasons that contribute to a poorer quality of sleep.
Short term consequences
of sleep deprivation
significant decrease in performance and alertness
Long term consequences
of sleep deprivation
cardiovascular diseases
impaired memory and excessive daytime sleepiness which can affect your cognitive abilities
moodiness and conflicts
shortened attention span making it hard to participate in certain activities that require sustained attention
heightened risk of occupational and automobile injury
sallow skin and puffy eyes
if this continues, it can lead to lacklustre skin, fine lines and dark circles under the eye
lower libidos and less interest in sex as a result of depleted energy, excessive sleepiness and increased tension in relationships
obesity (it is proven that when you sleep, you lose body weight)
psychiatric problems, including depression and other mood disorders

mental impairment

attention deficit disorder (ADD)

foetal and childhood growth retardation

restricted childhood growth

further tension or even breakdown in relationships

overall decreased quality of life

reduced mortality

impaired judgement about sleep - there is a point in sleep deprivation where you lose touch with how impaired you are
sleep disorders
You may have a medical sleep disorder if you:
feel excessively irritable or sleepy
find it difficult to stay awake
have difficulty concentrating
often get told that you seem tired
react slowly
have trouble controlling your emotions
feel that you need to frequently take a
require caffeinated beverages to keep yourself awake
wake up after seven to eight hours of sleep feeling unrefreshed
have a need to move your legs to relieve them of a tingly sensation when you lie down in bed
awake and find out that your bed partner had deserted you

If sleep problems continue to become a regular occurrence, it can interfere with your daily life, causing you to suffer from a
sleep disorder
sleep disorders can enormously impact on our individual and public health, safety and performance.
the International Classification of Sleep Disorders lists 48 recognised abnormalities relating to sleep.
the lack of quality sleep will lead to negative impacts on your mood, energy, efficiency and the ability to handle stress, as well as emotional balance and health
fortunately, due to increasing awareness, effective treatments can be created.

Sleep problems occur as a result of poor ‘sleep hygiene’ or ‘bad habits’, which are a range of practices and environmental factors. However, contrary to popular belief, many of these factors are able to be controlled.

the biggest tell-tale sign that you have sleep apnoea is how you feel the next day.
pauses occurring while you snore, and choking or gasping follow the pauses
excessive sleepiness during the day, at work, or while driving
morning headaches
memory or learning problems and not being able to concentrate
feeling irritable or depressed
Having yo urinate frequently during the night
dry mouth or sore throat when you wake up

Sleep Apnoea
Sleep apnoea is when your breathing is briefly interrupted, for about 20 seconds and then instinctively begin to gasp for air. This cycle repeats itself over and over, all night long.
There are two types of sleep apnoea,
obstructive (OSA)
central (CSA)
is when your throat collapses during sleep because the airway becomes blocked and prevents air from flowing into your lungs. As a result, your blood oxygen levels decrease, and your brain gets an alert message to breathe, making your breathing to resume with a gasp or choking sound. These apnoea episodes may occur
20 to 100
or more times per hour
is far less common, and here, the brain fails to send a signal to the muscles to breathe. This can occur in various heart and neurological disorders as well
Complex sleep apnoea
is a combination of obstructive sleep apnoea and central sleep apnoea
Signs and symptoms
it will jolt you out of your natural sleep rhythm. As a result, you spend less time in deep, restorative sleep.
you may wake with a dry mouth, a headache and the feeling of a hangover.
It results in daytime sleepiness, slow reflexes, poor concentration, and an increased risk of accidents
can also lead to serious health problems over time
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder. Many people experience ‘pins and needles feelings’, an ‘internal itch’ or a ‘creeping, crawling sensation’ in their legs, and therefore needs to relieve this discomfort by vigorously moving their legs.
It makes it difficult for people to fall asleep because it forces them to walk around to relieve the discomfort, but when you lie down again, the sensation begins again. Restless leg syndrome is not considered to be medically serious, but symptoms can range from being bothersome to having severe impacts.
Experts believe it is caused by an imbalance of
. It is usually
but it does seem to be more common in
older adults and women. Some health conditions
can trigger RLS as well.
Those with RLS also usually suffer from periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), repetitive movements of the toe and foot, and brief muscle twitches, jerking movements or an upward flexing of the feet
sufferers may be completely unaware that RLS and PLMD disturb sleep and produce these symptoms. However, as RLS and PLMD are associated with several other medical conditions, including iron-deficiency anaemia, one should always seek proper medical attention once it’s been brought to light
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder affecting the brain's ability to regulate sleep.

It is an overwhelming need to sleep although you prefer to stay awake and the person may spontaneously fall asleep.

Signs and symptoms
excessive daytime sleepiness
falling asleep spontaneously
sleep paralysis
cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle control)
micro sleep/automatic behaviour
night-time wakefulness
rapid entry into REM sleep
It is generally agreed that narcolepsy is tied to
as well as an environmental trigger.
People with narcolepsy have a
deficiency, a chemical produced by the brain that sends waking signals and regulates sleep. Narcoleptics also lack in
Hcrt cells,
which prevents them from being fully able to control alertness, therefore resulting in the tendency to fall asleep.
adverse impact on physical wellbeing and safety
deterioration of mental health, leading to depression and anxiety
social barriers and even subjection to harassment
extreme sleepiness may also cause low sex drive and impotence
poor memory and attention
Insomnia is the inability to get the necessary amount of sleep. It is defined by the
of one’s sleep and how one feels after sleeping, because different people need different amounts of sleep.
It is quite a common problem that will have negative impacts on your energy, mood, health, and ability to function through the day
Emotional issues cause half of all insomnia cases, but your daytime habits, sleep routine, sleep environment and physical health also play a large role. Other causes can include traumatic experiences, medications and health problems.
There is a correlation between sleep and a student’s performance, associating bad sleep habits with bad to average students.

Not having enough quality sleep has already proven to decrease one’s ability to think, deduce and solve, as well providing headaches and lethargy.

This impedes the student’s ability to learn, consequently affecting one’s exam results and turning into a cycle of stress and lack of sleep.
In order to alleviate these types of problems, you need to design and stick with a good sleep hygiene program.
habits and hygiene
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
What to do before sleep

students and sleep
according to a survey by the National Sleep Foundation, only
of students reported getting the optimal
9 hours
required for sleep
teenagers often make up for lack of sleep by sleeping in on weekends, although it may cause a delay in the circadian rhythm

is a hormone that is important in regulating our internal
body clock
and making helping us fall asleep. Increased levels of melatonin are produced while we sleep than during the day. In growing teenagers, the
delay of melatonin
often leads to staying up later hours and can therefore contribute to poor sleep.

Quick fact:
Causes of bad sleep for students
Sleep deprivation is often perceived as something to be proud of. In fact, those who do claim to rest well can even be teased or picked on for being ‘childish’, ‘dependent’ or ‘sheltered’.

Many students, especially those in senior years, college, or are taking exams, rely on ‘quick fixes’ which can worsen the cycle of sleep.

stress and anxiety
Effects on education
daytime sleepiness and fatigue, making it hard to concentrate at school
Effects on wellbeing
difficulty communicating with others, resulting in a breakdown of relationships
the cycle
of poor sleep
alcohol and drug abuse
increased workload at school
extracurricular activities, part-time jobs or social distractions
pulling all-nighters for upcoming tests etc.
interruption of sleep and eating patterns
sleeping in on weekends in order to make up for their lack of sleep
spending more time partying with friends
decreased ability for proper brain function
decreased memory retention and consolidation
difficulty paying attention in class
not being able to reach your full potential
loss of future opportunities
These will ultimately contribute to unsatisfactory grades or exam results, undermining the full potential of the student and thus their future opportunities.
low tolerance for stress
acne and other skin problems
increased appetite, leading to a greater consumption of junk food
can be fatal, especially drowsiness when driving
additional cycle of self-doubt due to constantly being behind other students
A combination of all these factors will further deteriorate your mood or personality and this could lead to psychological disorders such as depression.

On the other hand, regularly getting enough sleep can make you feel more positive, productive and motivated to reach your goals, as well as build stronger connections to a wider group of friends and peers.

breaking out of the cycle
addressing the issue
a ‘sleeping class’ at a Junior High School in Fukuoka has proven to drastically improve students’ alertness throughout the day. After a ten-minute nap, they are allocated a time to clean the school, which actively engages them in waking up.
at the same school, classical music is played at lunchtime to allow a relaxed environment suitable for sleep.
another high school in Fukuoka has had this program for nine years and has shown a significantly increased number of students getting into Tokyo University.
studies suggest that the optimal time for studying is 6-8pm, as this is when the brain is the most alert; the brain is the least alert in the early hours of the afternoon.
"Memory recall and ability to maintain concentration are much improved when an individual is rested," Dr. Philip Alapat of the Harris Health Sleep Disorders Center says. "By preparing early and being able to better recall what you have studied, your ability to perform well on exams is increased."
It is vital to establish a good sleeping schedule not only for high school but to continue throughout college and the rest of one’s life, as the lack of restrictions and curfews after leaving the protection of the family household often results in the misused freedom of when to sleep and wake up.
light exercise, 3-4hrs prior to sleep
stretching and massaging before sleep, which stimulates blood circulation
bathe for a longer period of time / warm feet in warm water
drink warm milk or decaf tea (a protein in milk called
opium heptide
has a relaxing effect)
do not eat 3 hrs prior to sleep
do not consume alcohol, as although it is certainly a depressant it contributes to wakeful and restless night
stay off technology one or two hours prior to sleep, due to the blue light emitted by screens
listen to relaxing or ambient music
have a routine. A good bedtime routine will subconsciously prepare your mind and body for sleep
try to avoid taking sleeping pills or other drugs as these will greatly alter your natural sleeping pattern and affect your mood later
Sleeping environment
keep it dark, as light stimulates wakefulness
keep noise to a minimum, within 40-70 decibels
slightly cooler room temperature
ensure you have a comfortable mattress suited for your needs
refrain from using an alarm, as they have been proven to disrupt your sleep cycle and in fact worsen your mood for the day
Blue, yellow and green have proven to be good colours for falling asleep.
Tips and strategies
if you are unable to sleep for over half an hour in bed, it is better for you to get up and do something or wait until you are tired
consciously trying about falling asleep can make you anxious instead of relaxed
meditation and relaxation techniques
setting a sleeping and waking time is highly beneficial for the synchronization of your body clock and establishes natural patterns.
foods good for sleep
Decaf tea
Miso Soup
Boiled egg
case study
Sara, Sujin, Lizzy and Maggie's pre-bed routines
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good sleep
The science of sleep
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Tips and Strategies
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