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TOEFL PREPARATION: Structure
Transcript of TOEFL PREPARATION: Structure
A SUBJECT AND A VERB 1.___ was backed up for miles on
(B) In the morning
(D) Cars Engineers ___ for work on the new space program
(B) are needed
(D) next month PAY
COMMAS _____, George, is attending the lecture
(A) Right now
(C) Because of the time
(D) My friend _____,Sarah rarely misses her basketball shots.
(A) An excellent basketball player
(B) An excellent basketball player is
(C) Sarah is an excellent basketball player
(D) Her excellent basketball play BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES The child ____ playing in the yard is my son
(D) was The packages ___ mailed at the post office will arrive on Monday
(D) just USE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY COORDINATE CONNECTORS
and / but/ or/ so / yet Tom is singing,___ Paul is dancing
Tom is tall,___ Paul is short
Tom must write the letter,___ Paul will do it
Tom told a joke, ___ Paul laughed
Tom is tired, ____ he is not going to sleep A power failure ocured, ___ the lamps went out.
(D) next TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS
before / after / as soon as/ once / when / until / by the time.
because / since / as / now that. ___ was late, I missed the appointment
(C) The train
(D) Since he OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS
CONDITION: if / in case/ provided
providing / unless / whether
CONTRAST: although / even though
though/ while / where as
MANNER: as / in that
PLACE: where / wherever Bob went to school ___ he felt sick
(C) even though
(D) as The Smiths arrived at 2:00, ___ the Jones
arrived an hour later.
(D) even though LOOK AT MULTIPLE CLAUSES NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS
what / where / when / why / how
whatever / whenever
whether / if
that ___ was late caused many problems
(A) That he
(B) The driver
(D) Because NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS
Who / what / which / whoever / whatever/ whichever ___ is on the table has four sections
(A) The notebook
(B) The notebook which
(C) Because of the notebook
(D) In the notebook ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS
whom(for people)/ which (for things) / that(for people or things) The gift ___ selected for the bride was rather expensive.
(D) Which we ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS
Who(for people) / Which(for things) / That(for people or things) ___was on television made me angry
(B) The story
(D) When BECOME FAMILIAR WITH REDUCED CLAUSES ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
BE-VERB IN THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: omit the connector/subject (who,which,that)
NO BE-VERB IN THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: omit the connect/subject and change the main verb to the -ing form ___ on several different television programs,the witness gave conflicting accounts of what had happened
(A) He appeared
(B) Who appeared
(D) Appears ADVERB CLAUSES:
BE-VERB IN THE ADVERB CLAUSE: Omit the subject and the be-verb
NO BE-VERB IN THE ADVERB CLAUSE: Omit the subject and change the verb to the -ing form Active:
Contrast: although, though
Contrast: Although, though
Manner: as When ___, you are free to leave
(A) The finished report
(B) Finished with the report
(C) The report
(D) Is the report finished FOCUS ON INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS QUESTION WORDS
-question word + v + s
s + v + question word + s + v PLACE EXPRESSIONS:
Place (necessary) + v +s
Place (extra) + s + v NEGATIVES
No / not / never / neither / nor / barely / hardly / only / rarely /scarcely / seldom
Negative expression + v + s CONDITIONALS
Had / should / were
v + s
if + s + v Comparisons
s + v + comparison + s + v
s + v + comparison + v + s The lawyer asked the client why ___ it
(A) did he do
(B) did he
(C) he did
(D) did On the second level of the parking lot ____
(A) is empty
(B) are empty
(C) some empty stall are
(D) are some empty stalls Only in extremely dangerous situations ___ stopped
(A) will be the printing presses
(B) the printing presses will be
(C) that the printing presses will be
(D) will the printing presses be The report would have been acepted ___ in checking its accuracy
(A) if more care
(B) more care had been taken
(C) had taken more care
(D) had more care been taken The results of the current experiment appear to be more consistent than ___ the results of any previous tests
(C) they were
(D) were they WRITTEN EXPRESSION:
Find the mistakes TIPS:
+ First, look at the
Try to find the
+ If you can't find it,
then read the
complete sentence LOOK AT
AGREEMENT * The keys to the door is in the drawer.
* All of the book were interesting
* Behind the houses were the bicycle I wanted.
* Everybody are going to the theater PARALLEL
STRUCTURE * I like to sing and dancing
* She is not a teacher but
has an office.
* The tickets are neither in my
pocket nor I put them in my purse
* To be rich is better than being
poor COMPARATIVES AND
SUPERLATIVES Oxygen is abundanter than nitrogen.
This lesson is the most importantest one.
Rhonda is more hard working of the class.
The hotter the food is, harder it is to eat. fORM OF THE
VERBS They had walk to school.
My friend sung in the choir.
Having ate, he went to school.
We are do our homework.
The boat will leaving at 3:00
The machine may clicks off if it is overused USE OF
THE VERBS He took the money when he wants it
I tell him the truth when he asked me the question
Tom had finished the exam when the teacher collects the papers
The pilgrims have arrived in the New World in 1612
He knew that he will be able to pass the exam
In several of his paintings, Edwars Hicks depicted the Quaker farm
in Pennsylania where he spends his youth
Jake doubts that he would have time to finish the project PROBLEMS WITH
PASSIVE VERBS The portrait was painting by a famous artist
The boy had never be stung by a bee
The letter mailed today before noon
Particular issues that concern teenagers were
covering in the half-hour program PROBLEMS WITH
NOUNS On the table there were many dish
The lab assistant finished every tests
The woman found it difficult to believe that both of the piece of jewelry had disappeared
He has seen much foreign films
Because the bottom corner of the pocket was torn, much coins fell out.
The syllabi for the courses is included in the packet of materials.
In the evening he relaxes in front of the fire and writes long poets. PROBLEMS WITH
PRONOUNS Perhaps you would like to go to the seminar with they and their friends
Him and the girl are going shopping
If she borrows your coat, then you should be able to borrow her.
Mary and Mark invited theirs parents to see their new apartment
If a person really wants to succeed, they must always work hard
Some friends and I went to see a movie, and afterwards we wrote a critique about them. PROBLEMS WITH
ADVERBS He looked quite unhappily at the thought of leaving his job.
Marla jumped up quickly when she heard the gunshot.
The history course that I took last semester proved more difficultly than I had expected.
He has taken recently an English course.
The store opened with a sale fantastic.
The lawyer has selected carefully a new case.
The wedding reception was held at a restaurant expensive. MORE PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES She takes her daily medication on a regularly schedule
At the fashion show, the new seasonally fashions will be shown
She offered me some friendly advice about how to deal with the terrible problem
The alive snake was lying on the rock
The afraid child cried for his mother
She tried to walk quietly by the asleep dogs without waking them.
***alike / alive / alone / afraid / asleep *** PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES She is taking trip with friends.
The manager sent memo to his employees.
Can you heat water for tea?
The dishwasher quit his job because he was making only four dollars a hour.
An objection was raised because it was such a unnacceptable idea.
The workers at the plant do not belong to a union
The doctor used an other pills.
You must write a report on a subjects of you choice
He took a trip on a Snake River.
The ball hit a child on a head. PROBLEMS WITH PREPOSITIONS I know I can rely in you to be here on time.
I'll have to consult to my attourney before making a decision
I just don't approve at your cheating on the exam
If you take this job, it will be necessary to deal other
He can always depend his friends.
Tom blamed his brother the dent in the car PROBLEMS WITH
USAGE The biology student did several mistakes in the lab report.
No matter what job she has, she always makes her best.
The two routes you have chosen for the trip are like.
Alike the restaurant where we usually eat, this new restaurant has early-bird specials.
The waiter will bring you the another bowl of soup if you want.
Becuase they were not pleased with the hotel accomodations last year, they have decided to try a other hotel this year.