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Rothman's Three Models of Community Organizing

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Bianca Guiang

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Rothman's Three Models of Community Organizing

>Locality Development
>Social Planning
>Social Action

Rothman's Three Models of Community Organizing
Social Planning
-Involves a technical process of problem-solving with regard to substantive social problems, such as delinquency, housing, and mental health.
-This model often provides little opportunity for citizen input into the planning process.
-Top-Down approach

Social Action
-Practitioners practicing this model assume that a disadvantaged segment of the population needs to be organized in order to make demands on the larger community for increased resources or improved treatment more in accordance with social justice or democracy.

Selected Practice Variables
Goal Categories
>Task goals entail the completion of a community social problem pertaining to the functioning of a community social system.
>Process or Maintenance goals are more oriented to system maintenance and capacity.

Thank you for listening!
-is a very important field of Social Work Practice in the Philippines.
Locality Development
-This model of community practice is based on the belief that in order to affect change, a wide variety of community people should be involved in planning, implementation, and evaluation. 

-Duting 50s and 60s community organizing was associated mainly with Community Chest-related efforts in raising funds and coordinating activities of its member agencies to avoid duplication of services.
Community Organization
In late 60s and early 70s, there was a need to shift emphasis from one-to-one mode of helping people to more mass-oriented.
The Models
Locality Development
Social Planning
Social Action
-Themes emphasized: democratic procedures, voluntary cooperation, self-help, development of indigenous leadership, and education.
-Bottom-Up approach

-an inside-out model because it starts with a committed core of people who work to develop a collective consciousness among all people who are affected by the conditions.

-It represents a model which tries to challenge the status-quo through a wide range of disruptive, confrontational, and often conflicting tactics.

-This model brings issues of social justice, equity, oppression, and discrimination to the forefront of the community's consciousness.
1. Goal Categories
2. Assumptions Regarding Community Structure and Problem Conditions
3. Basic Change Strategy
4. Characteristic Change Tactics and Techniques
5. Practioner Roles and Medium of Change
6. Orientation Toward Power Structure
7. Boundary Definition of the Community Client System or Constituency
8. Assumptions Rgarding Interests of Community Subparts
9. Conception of the Public Interest
10. Conception of the Client Population or Constituency
11. Conception of the Client or Constituent Role
>In locality development, community capacity and self-help (process goals).
>In social planning, Problem solving with regard to substantive community problems (task goals)
>In social action, Shifting of power relationships and resources; basic institutional change (task or process goals)

Assumptions Regarding Community Structure and Problem Conditions
>In locality development, anomie; lack of relationships, and democratic problem-solving capacities; traditional community.
>In social planning, substantative social problems, such as health, housing, recreation.
>in social action, aggrieved population, social injustice, deprivation, and inequality.
Basic Change Strategy
>In locality development, involes a broad cross section of people in determining and solving their own problem.
>In social planning, gathering data about problems and making decisions on the most logical course of action.
>In social action, crystallizing issues and mobilizing people to take actions against enemy targets.
Characteristic Change Tactics and Techniques
>In locality development, consensys; communication among community groups; group discussions.
>In social planning, tactics of consensus or conflict.
>In social action, conflict confrontation, direct action, and negotiation.
Practitioner Roles and Medium of Change
Orientation Toward Power Structure
>In locality development, members of power structure as collaborators in a common venture.
>In social planning, power structure as employers and sponsors.
>In social action, power structure as ecternal target of action; oppressors to be coerced or overturned.
>In locality development, enabler-cataalyst, teeacher of problem-solving skills and ethical values.
>In social planning, fact gatherer and analyst, program implementer.
>In social action, activist advocate, negotiator, partisan, agitator.
Boundary Definition of the Community Client System or Constituency
>In locality development, total geographic community.
>In social planning, total community or community segment,
> In social action, community segment.
Assumptions Regarding Interests of Community Subparts
>In locality development, common interests or reconcilable differences.
>In social planning, either there is an increase of reconciliation or conflict.
>In social action, conflicting interests which are not easily reconcilable.
Conception of the Client Population or Constituency
>In kocality developemnt, citizens.
>In social planning, consumers.
>In social action, victims.
Conception of Client Role or Constituency
>In locality development, seen as participants in an interactional problem-solving process.
>In social planning, seen as consumers or recipients.
>In social action, seen as employers, constituents, members.
The Orange Book
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