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Grammar!

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by

Roger Valderrama

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Grammar!

Grammar!
Future Perfect
Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.





Types of Clauses
Independent Clauses
Future Continuos
Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.
Simple Future
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
CLAUSES
Restrictive Clauses
Restrictive clauses limit the possible meaning of a preceding subject.
The Future Tense
Examples
Form Will
[will + verb]
FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]
FORM Will

[will + verb]

You will help him later.
Will you help him later?

FORM Be Going To

[am/is/are + going to + verb]

You are going to meet Jane tonight.
Are you going to meet Jane tonight?

FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "
[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]
FORM Future Continuous with "Will"
[will be + present participle]
Examples
Form with WILL

I will be playing soccer all day long
Form With Be Going To
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Present Continous as Future
People use the Present Continuous as Future to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.
Form: Verb to Be + Verb + -Ing
Simple Present as Future
People occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future.
Examples
Simple Present as Future

Present Continuous as Future
I am meeting some friends after work.
The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
Examples:
You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
Examples of Restrictive clauses
The suspect in the lineup who has red hair committed the crime.
The store honored the complaints that were less than 60 days old
.

Non Restrictive clauses
Nonrestrictive clauses tell you something about a preceding subject, but they do not limit, or restrict, the meaning of that subject.
Non Restrictive clauses Examples
The suspect in the lineup, who owns a red car, committed the crime.
The store honored the complaints, which were less than 60 days old.
Past Tense
Simple past
Base form of verb+ d/ed or irregular form (filled-attended-came)
The simple is used to talk about activities and states that were completed at a specific time in the past.
Examples
You called Debbie.
I saw a movie yesterday.
I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
Modals
Present/future advice
Weaker
: could,might, should
Stronger
: had better, have to, must
Past advice
Weaker
: could have, might have, should have
Stronger
: had better


Present/future context
You
could
talk to your boss. Maybe she can help.
You shouldn´t quit until you find a new job.
Past context
You
could have
talked to your boss instead.
You
had better have
found another job first.
Modals
-Modals can be used to give advice
-Weaker modals often sound more polite
Basic Grammar
Principles
- Stronger modals are used to give advice with a warning of bad consequences.
Relative Pronouns
Modals of necessity: Modals
The relative pronoun
There
Their
They´re
Use there when referring to a place, whether concrete.
Use their to indicate possession, it indicates that a particular noun belongs to them.
They’re is the contraction of "they are" and is often followed by the present participle.
Were
play.google.com
Is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that its relative clause modifies.
Who, Whom, Which, Of Which, Whose, That
Dependent Clauses
Is part of a sentence, it contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. They can make sense on their own, but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning.
Some Conjunctions for dependent clauses are...
After
if
that
when
where
why
once
since
Is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning.
Some independent clause conjunctions are...
and
but
for
or
nor
so
yet
Modals can be used to talk about a necessity or something that is required
Only
had to
is used to express past necessity
Have to
and
have got

are used in present and future.
Examples:
Present/future tense
-You have to pay before entering
the park.
-He has to be at the meeting by
10:00.
Past tense
-She had to quit her job.
-You had to pay before entering
the park
Use "this" for one object (singular) which is here (near to us).
Use "that" for one object (singular) which is there.
Examples
This is a book in my hand.
That is his car over there.
This is my backpack.
That chair is big.
at, in, or to what place.
the past tense of the plural forms of to be.
Examples
Where are my glasses?
They were rich.
I know where he is.
We were eating.
Examples
My friends have lost their tickets.
There are many documents that are used in investigations.
Things are only impossible until they're not.
Examples
Those mountains look really small from here.
Could you hand me those boxes on the other side of the room?
These is used for objects / things / people that are close to the speaker.
Those is used for objects / things / people that are away from the speaker.
Whose shoes are these?
These books are the best books on Earth.
Past Participle
Participles are words formed from verbs which can be used as adjectives.
Examples
The boy taken to hospital has recovered.
Finally broken , Lee lowered his gloves.
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