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Milk and dairy products

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on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Milk and dairy products


A
vital
source of nutrition.
Average
daily consumption

doubled
from 1961 to 2007. The demand for
milk
in developing countries is expected to increase by
25
percent by
2025
.

FAO, 2013

Milk Hygiene
Fresh milk contains a low microbial load, increase up to
100
fold if stored at normal temperatures.

It harbor a variety of microorganisms and can be important sources of
foodborne pathogens
.

Pathogens cause outbreaks associated with milk and dairy products:
(
L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, S. aureus, B. cereus and Cl. botulinum).

CDC, 2013

136
outbreaks with
2,468
illness and
2
deaths in the US since 1994 : 2013, linked for raw milk and raw milk cheeses.
During 2013:
C. jejuni
(4 outbreaks)
E. coli
O157:H7
(2 outbreaks)
E. coli
O103
(one outbreak)
S. typhimurium
(one outbreak).
Food Safety
Food safety is related to certain harmful substances;
food safety hazards
which are reasonably likely to cause harm, injury or illness, when present above an established acceptable level.

Quality of finished products begins with that of the used raw milk.

Neglecting
GHPs
&
GMPs
during processing, handling and transferring a main cause for contamination with pathogens and/or toxins.
Milk and dairy products

Milk & dairy are
nutrient dense
foods.
Fat, Protiens, CHO
FSVs & WSVs (Vit.B)
Minerals (ca, ph, mg,K)
It nature's most nearly
perfect
food.


IDFA, 2013

Hazard
Biological Hazard
The greatest food safety threat .
Food poisoning bacteria cause large outbreaks of acute illness within a short time.
Bacteria of public health concern:
Salmonella spp.
,
L. monocytogenes
,
C. jejuni
,
Y. enterocolitica
, 4 pathogenic strains of
E. coli
and enterotoxigenic strains of
S. aureus
.
Aerobic mesophilic count
indicator
for assessing the
overall quality and safety
of milk and dairy products
Total Yeast & Mould count
A
quality issue
rather than a food safety concern.
Mycotoxin
production in foods is now recognized as an important threat to public health and considerable attention is given to its control.
Coliforms
Indicator
general microbiological quality "
routine

test
".
Indicator
of
heat treatment
failure & post heat treatment contamination.
E. coli, Citribacter spp., Klebsiella pneumonae and Enterobacter spp. were implicated in
gastrointestinal illness.
E. coli
EHEC strains associated with food borne outbreaks traced to, milk & dairy products.
It was responsible for
2 outbreaks
in
2013
linked to
raw milk
,
one
outbreak in
2009
and one in
2008
(both were linked to
ice cream
).
Staphylococci
Indicator for
neglected

hygienic
measures applied during production, processing and distribution of milk and dairy products.
S. aureus
CPS
is considered the most important species of Staphylococci due to its
pathogenicity
and capability of enterotoxin production.
Milk and dairy products constitute
1 – 9 %
of all S. aureus outbreaks in Europe
MRSA
Last reported outbreak was recorded by CDC in
2011
and it was linked to
cheese
.
Enterococci
It indicate a ‘
primary
’ contamination with faeces. Nevertheless, contamination of water sources, exterior of the animal and/or milking equipment can act as ‘
secondary
sources’ for food contamination.
Enterococci can cause food intoxication through production of high level of
biogenic

amines
.
Aerobic Spore Formers
ASFs are important in the food industry:
firstly
the ubiquitous nature makes it impossible to prevent their presence in raw food.
Secondly
, pasteurization processes fail to kill spores.
Thirdly
, adhesive characteristics facilitate their attachment forming biofilms.
And
last
, the (increasing) tolerance or resistance of spores or vegetative cells to treatments.
B. cereus
Spore forming
bacteria commonly found in small numbers in the environment.
Infective dose
=
1x106
organisms per gram of food or its toxins cause illness.
Can grow at
5°C
.
Last reported outbreak was recorded by CDC in
2009
and it was linked to
cheese
.
Anaerobic Spore Formers
Indicative of
manure
and
soil
contamination.
The most dangerous are Cl.
botulinum
& Cl.
perfringens
.
Cl. perfringens Infective dose
one million cells
per gram.
Y. enterocolitica
Usually contaminate
pasteurized milk
Can grow well at
refrigeration
temperatures.
Last reported outbreak was recorded by CDC in USA in
2011
and it was linked to
pasteurized

milk
L. monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes is the most significant species that has been incriminated in many cases of
food poisoning.
Last reported outbreak was recorded by CDC in USA in
2013
and it was linked to
cheese.
Salmonella spp.
Pasteurized milk, powdered milk, cheese, ice cream were implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks.
A dose of as little as
15-20
organisms can cause illness.
Last reported
2 outbreaks
recorded by CDC in
2013
and it were linked to
raw milk
and the other for
cheese
.
Assessment of the safety of milk and dairy products
sold in Egyptian markets through:
Determination of the general
hygienic level
of milk and dairy products.
Detection of the most common
biological hazards
seemed to be present in these products.

Aim of Work
Plan of work
Enumeration of
total aerobic

mesophilic
count (CFU / ml or g.).
Enumeration of
total yeast and mould
counts (CFU / ml or g.).
Enumeration, isolation and identification of
Coliforms
.
Isolation and identification of
E.coli
.
Enumeration of
total Staphylococcal
count (CFU / ml or g.).
Enumeration, isolation and identification of
Stapylococcus aureus.
Detection of Methicillin Resistant Stapylococcus aureus (
MRSA
).

Enumeration of total
Enterococcus
count (CFU / ml or g.).
Enumeration, isolation and identification of
aerobic spore formers
.
Enumeration, isolation and identification of
Bacillus cereus
.
Detection and Enumeration of

anaerobic spore formers

in cheese (
CFU / ml or g.).
Isolation and identification of
yersinia
spp.
Isolation and identification of
listeria

spp.
Isolation and identification of
Salmonella

organisms.
Determining the
degree of acceptability
of the examined milk and dairy products Vs. Egyptian standards.
Discussing the
preventive
and
control
measures which must be adopted to safeguard the consumer against the biological hazards, and safeguard the producer from economic losses
Material & Methods
I- Collection of samples
300
samples of milk and dairy products representing:
30
samples each of:
raw milk,
UHT milk,
yoghurt,
Canned Laban rayeb,
small scale ice cream,
large scale ice cream,

Hard cheese (Ras cheese),
white soft cheese,
processed cheese,
Kariesh cheese

III- Microbiological Examination
1. Total aerobic mesophilic count :
ISO, (2002)
5. Enterococci:
Oxoid, (2006)

8. Anaerobic spores
II_ Sample Preparation
(Iso, 2001)
Raw milk
UHT milk
Fermented milks
Ice cream
Cheese
2. Total Yeast & Mould count :
ISO, (2012)
3. Coliforms content

(MPN/ml or g.):
BAM online, (2009)
4. Staphylococci
4. 1.
Staphylococci
count: BAM online, (2001)
4. 2.
S. aureus
count: BAM online, (2001)


4. 3. Identification of isolated suspected S. aureus: (BAM on line, 2001)
4. 4. Determination of the relationship between
coagulase

and
TNase
production.


4. 5.
Antibiotic
Susceptibility profile of isolated Staphylococcus strains.

6. Aerobic spore formers
(APHA, 2004)
7. Bacillus cereus count:
BAM online,2012
9. Yersinia enterocolitica
10. Listeria monocytogenes
11. Salmonella
E. coli
Y. enterocolitica
L. monocytogenes
Salmonella Spp.
Authorities
Producers
Consumer

Suspected animals
should be isolated for treatment and their milk should be discarded.
periodical examination
of market milk and milk products by specialists.
Educational programs
for producers, processors and handlers.
Licenses
should not be given to establishments unless all equipment, facilities and hygienic conditions are fulfilled.
Increasing
awareness

of both producer and consumer about the importance of food quality and safety.
Application of
Food Safety Management System

e.g. ISO 22000: 2005 in dairy farms and plants.
Application of proper
personal hygiene
,
GMPs
and
GHPs
in dairy farms and dairy plants.
Apply Supplier quality assurance system
SQA.
Application of
prerequisite programs
on dairy plants.
Application of
Food Safety Management System.
Applying effective technological measures.
Application of one or more of
new technologies

on raw milk before its use in production.
Reduction of
spores
in milk by centrifugation, bactofugation or membrane filtration.
Using specific high quality
starter cultures
in production of cultured dairy products.
Using safe food grade
preservatives
as nisin.
Using Raw milk

Unpackaged products



street vendors
If in doubt through it out.
Opened packages are risky even if not expired.
Refrigerator .
Read the label well.
Fermented dairy products are more safe.
Souces
Full transcript