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Copy of Using Language to Persuade

Year 11 2012
by

Lyn Fishwick

on 3 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Using Language to Persuade

Using Language to Persuade English Unit 2 2012 Part A This Unit has 1 outcome which is completed in 2 parts Analyse the use of language and visual representations in texts that present a point of view on an issue currently debated in the Australian media. Part B Present a sustained and reasoned persuasive point of view on the selected issue. •You will need to produce a written analysis of the use of language in the presentation of an issue.
•You will be given two written media texts and an accompanying visual text.
•You will analyse and compare how two writers use written and visual language to persuade an audience to a particular point of view.
•The duration of Part A of the task will be one period.
•Students will analyse and compare the written texts in the first lesson and be given 40 minutes in the second period to analyse the visual text.
•The outcome will be conducted during the week starting 22 October 2012
•You will be allowed a dictionary only. Part A •You will select an issue of your own choosing that has been presented in the Australian media since 1 September, 2011. If this topic has not been debated in the media since that date, it must not be chosen.
•You will prepare an oral presentation persuading the audience to your point of view. You may choose to adopt a persona, as someone with a vested interest in the actual topic.
•You will prepare an individual presentation; group work is not accepted.
•You will prepare and submit a brief outline of your topic, stating the issue, the point of view you are presenting and the possible persona that they may be adopting.
•A folio of at least 5 written and visual articles must be presented on the day of the oral. These may be photocopies, or digital downloads of media and print texts. These need to be annotated.
•You will speak for a minimum of 4, and a maximum of 5, minutes.
•Notes/palm cards may be used. Multimedia presentations are not to be used.•
•The orals will be presented in the week of 8th October, 2012 – the first week of Term 4.
•All students will be expected to be present at all speeches. Part B Area of Study 3: Using Language to Persuade Task B Outline: Oral Presentation The focus of this area of study is on the use of language in the presentation of a point of view. Students explore the use of persuasive language in the construction of a reasoned point of view on an issue of social or personal relevance and interest. This point of view will be presented in an oral form. •Show that you have a thorough knowledge of the issue and understand the main arguments around it.

•Develop your argument logically and coherently•Substantiate your argument with up-to-date evidence.

•Acknowledge your sources of evidence (quotations, facts, statistics etc.) and give publication or broadcast details where relevant.

•Consider the counter arguments to your position, state them clearly and state why you reject these alternative views.

•Demonstrate your fair mindedness and the fact that you have researched the issue from several perspectives. Essential Elements of the Task You may choose your own issue. Ensure the issue is contemporary. It must have been covered in the media since September 1 2011. Issues that have been submitted for assessment in Ethics studies or other VCE studies are not acceptable. Avoid choosing topics that are too broad and difficult to manage eg abortion, euthanasia, climate change. If choosing a broad issue narrow your focus to one element. Climate change is a broad issue that you might narrow down to renewable energy.

Choose a topic in which you have interest and expertise. Topic Choice Present a five-minute individual presentation to your English class and teacher. Timing should be strictly adhered to and you must be ready to present at the time allocated by your class teacher. Read your presentation aloud and time it to ensure it falls within the 4 – 5 minutes. You will receive a four-minute warning.

Submit a folio of five annotated articles on your issue on the day you present.

Notes and palm cards are acceptable but they need to be rehearsed and should not get in the way of your communication with your audience. Dropping your head and reading from notes immediately disengages your audience.

The focus is on your oral skills in persuading your audience to your point of view. The presentation should be persuasive in nature not informative. There should be a clear contention and reasoned and logical arguments supported by relevant and contemporary evidence. Data shows and audio-visual materials will not be accepted.

Non-verbal language is an essential component of the task eg gesture, body language, eye contact. The Presentation We use persuasive language to convince others to agree with our facts, share our values, accept our argument and conclusions, and adopt our way of thinking. There are many different ways to persuade people, here are some of the more common: Strategies for Persuasion The dictionary meaning of a word it the denotation. The connotation is the emotional meaning associated with the word. Words with strong emotional connotations are usually more persuasive.

Example
‘Kill’ and ‘Slaughter’ both mean the same thing, but the word ‘slaughter’ has a different connotation to ‘kill’, as it causes the audience to imagine that the act was particularly horrific. Connotations Appeals seek to tap into the values and views which the audience holds dear. Typically persuasive appeals are made to one of three things:
1. Ethos- through demonstration of expertise and knowledge
2. Logic - through establishment of a rational discourse
3. Emotions - by playing on sympathies and imagination

Example
The term ‘Un-Australian’ is often used to appeal to a sense of patriotism Appeals By portraying views and beliefs which are contrary to your contention as foolish, dangerous, uncaring or deceitful, the audience is positions to agree with the contention.

Example
'‘Town Hall? Clown Hall if we consider the Mayor’s latest comments.’ Denigration By repeating letters, words and phrases you can reinforce an argument and ensure that the point of view being made stays in an audience’s mind.

Example
Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

I have a dream Repetition By using specialised terms, you can persuade the audience that you are an expert in the area you are discussing.

Example
When announcing a recession whilst trying to save face a politician may call it ‘period of economic adjustment’ or ‘interruption of economic expansion’. Jargon Formal language can make you sound knowledgeable whilst removing emotion from the issue. This can make the argument sound reasonable and rational, and the contention seem balanced.

Example: ‘If we consider the situation in emergency wards, with increasingly low staff retention rates, there are concerns about the capacity of hospitals to maintain adequate doctor to patient ratios.’
vs.
‘It's so obvious that people were given jobs just because they were male or female. I don't think that is an acceptable approach and is even against the law.’ Formal Language Colloquial language is informal, everyday, conversational language. It includes 'down to earth views' and slang and is seductive because it appears friendly, and will make the audience feel that you are on the same wavelength as them.

Example
"That totally grossed me out"

vs. "

That really disgusted me." Colloquial Language Exaggeration or "hype". It is a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis. It is often used to mock and denigrate, opposing opinions.

Example
Those who support this ridiculous idea would have us believe that it will dramatically improve the quality of life for modern living. Of course it will! And it will probably cure cancer and eradicate pollution, improve traffic flow and make the kids go to be when we tell them!

Legalising gay marriage will lead to bestiality. Hyperbole Analogy is a form of reasoning which compares one thing with another in order to make a particular point.

Example
One good analogy is worth three hours discussion. Analogy Loaded language is coloured, emotionally charged, slanted or biased in some way. This is often used in propaganda.

Example
George W. Bush’s ‘No Child Left Behind’ program emphasizes the innocence of children, and the feeling of isolation at being left behind, rather than the same program which could have been called ‘Helping students succeed in school’. Loaded Language Rhetorical questions imply only answer is expected. It is asked for effect only. It engages and positions the audience to view the answer as so obvious that they can only agree.

Example
Do we want our children growing up in a world where they are threatened with violence on every street corner? Rhetorical Questions Puns play on words and are persuasive because the writer is seen to be clever. An audience is disarmed by puns and is therefore left more open to persuasion.

Example:
‘Totally Artraged’ replacing outraged when talking about controversial art.

R and J Puns By using inclusive language, words such as ‘we’ and ‘our’, the audience is placed on a level playing field and become involved in the issue.

Example
‘People like you and me don’t want to see this happen’ Inclusive Language Watch the Following Ads and List All of the Techniques Used Advertising: Persuasive Techniques Lamb on Australia Day 2010 Mac 1984 Old Spice Man Watch the girl who stopped the world for 5 minuites What does she do well?
What could she improve? There are 3 things you should worry about when public speaking:

Matter
Method
Manner Simply, Matter refers to the raw material which you use to construct your arguments - the facts or evidence upon which your case is based. Matter includes such things as quotes, statistics, facts and evidence that you may be able to put forward to prove or further your own team case.

The two cornerstones of matter are logic and relevance. Top Five Matter Hints
1. Relevance! Make sure that you link each argument to the topic.

2. Research and use a wide range of resources.

3. Put yourself in the shoes of your opponents and try to think about what arguments they will make. Try and preemptively respond to the counter arguments.

4. Ask your teachers, parents and friends for ideas if you get stuck.

5. Make sure each point is backed up by a relevant example! Matter Manner Method is the structure or organisation of your speech.

Top Tips for Method
1. Outline to the audience what your main points will be.

2. Summarise at the end of your speech what your arguments were.

3. Define your topic, and your understanding of the topic. Method The way in which you deliver your speech. It includes everything that goes towards the presentation of your speech:

Use of voice: Try not to speak in a monotone, and remember to pause when appropriate.

Gestures: You should use some hand gestures, but try to avoid waving your arms about too much!

Use of notes: It is best that you use palm cards rather than a sheet of paper for your notes – waving around sheets of paper tends to be distracting, unlike cards which can fit into your hand.

Eye contact: The more you look at the audience, the better. Always face the audience – never turn around to address the opposition when making rebuttal.

Humor: Where appropriate, humor works well as it relaxes the audience and makes them more willing to listen to you. But don't go overboard. The Um, Ah, And, But Game Top Five Manner Hints
1. Smile at the audience.
2. Slow Down! Most speakers go too fast.
3. Pause between ideas to let them sink into the audience.
4. Vary your voice when you start a new point.
5. Use body language and gestures to liven up your speech. Summary: Kick the “ah, um” habit and avoid these words in natural conversation.

Goal: Avoid saying the taboo words “Ah”, “Um”, “Like”, or “You Know”. What Topics Could We Do? Some Suggested Topics Schools dumping chaplains
Gay marriage
Climate change
Should hospitality workers be paid penalty rates for working unsociable hours?
Export of cattle and sheep
Cigarette plain packaging
Coal seam gas
Recreational drug use in Australia
Can Australia sustain a car industry?
Productivity of Australian workers?
Wind farm debate
Should overweight people pay more to fly?
Speed cameras
Tax breaks for wealthy people
Should skilled migrants be taught about hygiene?
Asylum seekers
Teenage Asylum seekers
Maldive's climate refugees
Are fireworks are waste of money?
Murray Darling Basin
Online privacy in regards to internet and social media
Carbon tax
Should Australia strengthen economic ties with India?
Australia's role in Libyan conflict
Nuclear power
Nursing strikes
QANTAS PR disaster
Bali boy and drug charges
Japanese whaling
Doctor shortage
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