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yr 8 trip by ethan sanderson

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ethan sanderson

on 15 June 2013

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Transcript of yr 8 trip by ethan sanderson

Presented by Ethan Sanderson
#1 CIA- The World Factbook
Ethan's Project
April 2013 - June 2013
World Atlas
April, 2013 - June, 2013
April 2013 - June 2013
Index Mundi
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the- world-factbook
#2 Star Alliance Travel
World Map
This is where our journey begins. Leaving from Brisbane Airport, we will visit all seven continents around the world and travel over 60 thousand kilometers. We will be going to some exciting sporting events in South America and Europe, digging for dinosaurs in America, helping out underprivelaged kids in Africa and riding rollercoasters in Asia. Along the way we'll visit the beautiful city of Paris and witness the magnificent ancient pyramids in Cairo. We'll go from the extreme heat of the Egyptian desert to taking an icy polar plunge in Antartica. These are just some of the amazing places we'll be visiting during our amazing adventure.
- While in New York, we will visit the Empire State Building. The building is a national historical landmark built in 1931. It has 103 floors and was once the tallest building in the world. The building is a famous landmark and has been seen in lots of movies, the most famous one is "King Kong". We will be going to the top of the Empire State Building to see the breathtaking 360 degree views of the city.
Our stop in South America is the City of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

Brazil is the largest country in South America and shares its borders with ten other countries including Argentina, Peru and Bolivia. Brazil is among the leading producers of coffee in the world which is the world's second most traded commodity after oil. Brazil's capital city is Brasilia and it's currency is the real (pronounced "hay-ow").

Brazil has a varied climate ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north, to temperate forest areas in the south and tropical savannas in the central part of the country. Temperatures in Brazil average 25 degrees celcius all year round. Average temperatures in Brazil don't change much between seasons and a bigger change in temperature happens between the day time and the night rather than from season to season. The northeastern part of the country has a semiarid climate and receives very little rain. Most of the rain falls in a period of three to five months during the year which creates long periods of drought in between. In 1877 the most severe drought ever recorded in Brazil caused over half a million deaths.
- For our southern hemisphere beach holiday we will be going to Copacabana and Ipanema beach, two of the coolest and most beautiful beaches in the world. They are located next to each others in Rio de Janeiro on the Atlantic Ocean. The beach at Ipanema became well known because of the song "the girl from ipanema". The word Ipanema means "stinky lake". On weekends the roads are closed to vehicles and tourists can ride bikes, rollerskate, skateboard and walk along the ocean road. Huge crowds on the beach often applaud to the sunset in the summer.

Copacabana beach is one of the most famous beaches in the world and where surfers go to catch the "perfect wave". It has been the venue of the FIFA beach world cup and where Usain Bolt will attempt to break the 150 metre world record.
Cristo Redentor -"Christ the Redeemer"
- The construction of Cristo Redentor started in 1926 and was completed in 1931. It stands at the top of Mount Corcovado overlooking the city. The statue is 124ft tall and the arms stretch 92ft across. It weights 1145 tonnes. The statue represents Jesus with open arms, a symbol of peace.

We will be trekking up Mount Corcovado to see the statue of Cristo Redentor or "Christ the Reedeemer" which overlooks the beutiful city of Rio.

During our stay we'll be visiting "Arc De triomphe" which is a very famous monument located in the centre of Paris at the western end of the Champs-Elysees where twelve roads intersect. A huge traffic roundabout encircles the arch. The arch was built between 1806 and 1836 to honour those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars.

Beneath the Arc is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War 1.
Paris, France







During out stay in Paris we'll be watching the last leg of the Tour de France which is from Montereau to Paris. The finish line is in the city of Paris at the Champs Elyses. The Tour De France is a three week long cycling race around the whole country of France. The first official race of the Tour De France started back in 1903. Australian cyclist Cadel Evans won the Tour de France in 2011 and will race again in 2013 .
St Moritz, Switzerland
Our second stop in Europe is Switzerland where we will be going to the town of St Moritz for our winter sports holiday.

Switzerland is Located in central Europe and is landlocked by Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south and Austria to the East. Switzerland's terrain is dominated by the Alps mountain range which runs through the country and covers 65% of Switzerland's total surface area. The highest peak in the Swiss Alps is Monte Rosa which is 4,634 metres high. Switzerland has more than 1500 lakes, and contains 6% of Europe's stock of fresh water. Switzerland has a mostly temperate climate which varies with altitude. Winters are cold and snowy and summers are cool to warm. Skiing, snowboarding and mountaineering are among the most popular sports in Switzerland, because of the moutainous terrain and cold climate.

St Moritz is a resort town in the Engadine valley in Switzerland. Almost half of the area is covered with rivers, glaciers and mountains and it's alpine climate make it a perfect location for winter sports and activities. The town has been host to numerous national and international sporting events such as the winter Olympics and Alpine Skiing world championships.

The Sphinx is a immense stone structure of a creature with a head of a human and the body of a lion. The great sphinx was carved out of a single piece of limestone rock measuring 73 meters long and 20 meters high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture in the world and is believed to be over 4,500 years old.

The Sphinx is part of the Giza Pyramid complex and is found a short distance from the three great pyramids just outside of the city of Cairo.

Built between 2,584 and 2,561 BC, the Great Pyramids are the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the only one still remaining today.

There are three great pyramids that are believed to be burial tombs of three great pharaohs of ancient Egypt. The Pyramids are built on the Giza Plateau which is an area of solid bedrock in the desert just outside the city of Cairo.
For our second stop in Africa, we will be visiting the city of Cairo in Egypt.

Is a country located in the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, connecting the two continents via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of Egypt lies within North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north which seperates it from Europe, Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt is one of the most populated countries in Africa and the 15th most populated in the world. The Nile river is located in Egypt and is the longest river in the world at 6,650 kilometers long. The great majority of Egypt's 84 million people live near the banks of the Nile River. Egypt has a desert climate with hot, dry summers and moderate winters. Much of the country is desert interrupted by the Nile valley and delta.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country in the world, having been continuously inhabited since the 10th millennium BC. Its monuments, such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx, were constructed by its ancient civilization, which was one of the most advanced of its time.

A very important trade route called the Suez Canal exists in Egypt. It is a man made canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, allowing transportation by water between Europe and Asia without ships having to go all the way around Africa, saving lots of time and money.

Located in the north of the country, Cairo is the capital city of Egypt and the largest city in Africa. The city is found along the Nile River and has a hot desert climate, often with high humidity. Wind storms are frequent bringing dust from the Sahara desert into the city. Cairo is Egypt's main centre for health and education.
Cape Coast, Ghana
Although Ghana is relatively secure, there is widespread need for infrastructure and educational support. There are modern areas in the larger towns with new buildings, but rural areas are very poor with no modern amenities.


will be getting a chance to help people in need with a group called "Projects Abroad" which is a group that organises overseas volunteer work for high school students.

We will be taking part in a 2-week Care & Community Project in Cape Coast. As volunteers we will make a significant difference in other people's lives while at the same time exploring and getting to know Ghana.

We will be spending two weeks working in an orphanage or a local school. We will be renovating and decorating the building in the mornings and playing with and caring for the children in the afternoons. By putting in a new floor or painting a mural on a neglected wall, we will be making a valuable and lasting contribution to the children's lives.

Over the weekend we'll visit Ghana's beaches for some well deserved rest and relaxation and the Kakum Rainforest Reserve near Cape Coast, where we can hike through the jungle and experience the canopy walkway high in the trees. We will also have the opportunity to visit Cape Coast's famous slave fort.

The "Land Before Time"

The Walk Through Time allows visitors to follow the evolution of ancient life. In the Hall of Dinosaurs is a Supersaurus, one of the largest dinosaurs ever, a 35-foot T-Rex and a Triceratops. There are also over 30 other mounted skeletons including fossil fish from Scotland, flying reptiles from Brazil, dinosaurs from China and marine reptiles from several continents.
Tokyo, Japan
Built in 1958, the Tokyo Tower is a communication and observation structure which is found in Shiba Park, Tokyo. At 333meters high, it is the second tallest structure in Japan.

The tower was originally built for television broadcasting but when Japan changed over to digital TV, it was found that the antenna wasn't high enough to transmit the digital signal and a new, taller structure called the Tokyo Skytree was built.

During our stay in Tokyo we'll be visiting the famous structure and going up to the observation deck to enjoy the scenic views of the city.
The first continent we will visit is North America. North America is a continent entirely within the northern hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by the continent of South America. It is widely accepted that the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered America, however the Americas were named after another Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci who explored the region between 1497 and 1502. Map makers later divided the Americas into North and South.
South America

1. South America consists of 12 countries including Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil.

2. The highest peak in South America is Cerro Aconcagua which is located in Chile and is 6,959 meters high. It is located in the Andes mountain range.

3. The longest river in South America is the Amazon River which stretches through Columbia, Peru and Brazil. At 6, 516 km long it is also one of the longest rivers in the world.

4. South America has a population of 392 million Inhabitants and is the fifth highest populated continent in the world.

5. Brazil is the largest country by area in South America and at 8 million sq km, it is the fifth largest country in the world. It covers half of South America's land area and contains half the continent's entire population.

6. The lowest point in south America is Laguna Del Carbon which is located in Argentina and is -105 meters.

7. The total area of South America is 17.8 million sq km.

8. The most populated city in South America is Sao Paulo which is found in Brazil and has a population of 19.6 million.
The second continent we are visiting is South America. South America is a continent located mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean. Several islands are part of South America continent and include the Galápagos Island, Easter Islands and Robinson Crusoe Islands.

South America has the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest river (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes, the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert in Chile and the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest;

South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, giant anteater and jaguar.
The Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA - The Grand Canyon is a deep canyon in the state of Arizona, USA that has been carved by the Colorado River over millions of years. It is 446 kilometers long and 29 kilometers wide. The gorges and valleys are up to 1.8 kilometers deep.

The Grand Canyon is considered to be one the seven natural wonders of the world.
Chichen Itza, Mexico - Is a large city built by the Mayan civilization around 600 AD and was the largest Mayan city believed to exist. It is one of the most visited archaeological sites in North America. An estimated 1.2 million tourists visit the ruins every year.

North America consists of 23 individual countries including Mexico, Canada and USA.

The highest peak in North America is Mount McKINLEY which is located in Alaska, USA. It is 6,194 metres high.

The lowest point in North America is Death Valley at -86meters. It is located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA.

The population of North America is 542 million which makes it the 4th highest populated continent.

The United States of America is the most populated country in North America with 315 million inhabitants. It is also the 3rd most populated country in the world.

Canada is the largest country by area in North America at 9.9 million sq km. It also has the longest coastline of any country in the world.

Mexico City is the most populated city in North America with 21 million people living there.

The Mississppi River in the USA is the longest river North America and the 4th longest in the world at 5,969 km.

Greenland, which is located off the North East coast of Canada near the Artic circle is the largest Island in the world. Three quarters of the island is covered by an ice sheet. Physically, Greenland is part of North America but is ruled by Denmark which is a Euopean country.

The largest Lake in North America is Lake Superior which is also the largest freshwater lake in the world. It is located on the USA/Canadian border.
Niagra Falls, Ontario, Canada - Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that sit on the border between Canada and USA. The largest of the three waterfalls named "Horseshoe falls" is the most powerful waterfall in North America and is a valuable source of hydro electric power.
As our first stop in North America we will be visiting the State of Wyoming, USA. Here, we wll be doing our scientific research which will be a National Geographic Adventure called "Exploring Jurassic Park" at the Wyoming Dinosaur Center. The Wyoming Dinosuar Center includes a world-class museum, dinosaur dig sites and a preparation laboratory. We will be taking part in a dinosaur dig where we get to go to a real life dig site and dig for fossils of dinosaurs that roamed this area millions of years ago. Our goal with this dig is to unearth and prepare the fossils for scientific investigation and for display in The Wyoming Dinosaur Center Museum. After arriving at the museum we will be given a brief orientation and information on local geology and paleontology as well as digging techiniques and data collection procedures. I have never been to an actual dinosaur dig site before and I think this will be really exciting.
The dinosaurs from the cretaceous period, which had the most dinosaurs of any period, lived in North America. This period included the mighty Tyrannosaurus better known as the "T-Rex". Several U.S. states, including Wyoming, are known as being the best source of dinosaur fossils in the world.
The United States of America is located in the northern hemisphere between Canada and Mexico. Like Australia, the USA is split up into states. The USA has 51 states, including Alaska, Texas, Florida and California. The capital of the USA is Washington DC.

The geography of the USA is extremely diverse, with deserts, plains, forests and mountains scattered across the country. Becasue the country is so big, climates vary. While the north is fairly dry and experiences hot summers and cold winters, the south has a wet subtropical climate with hot temperatures for most of the year and a short mild winter. The very southern tip of Florida has a tropical climate, the Great Plains through the central part of the country are semi-arid, the mountain areas in the western part of the country have an alpine climate and the state of Alaska in the far north west, is subarctic. Extreme weather in the USA is common, with the states in the south being prone to hurricanes. Most of the world's tornadoes occur in the USA, mainly in the Midwest's "Tornado Alley".

The USA has an extensive mountain range called The Rocky Mountains which are located along the western edge of the country and extend from Canada in the north to the state of New Mexico in the south. The mountains reach altitudes over 4,300 meters. The Chihuahua and Mojave deserts also exsist in the south west part of the country.

For our second stop in North America we will going to New York City, USA. New York is located on the eastern Atlantic coast of the USA. Nicknamed "The Big Apple", New York has 22 million inhabitants and is the 5th most populated city in the world. It is also known as "the city that never sleeps" because of it's busy streets. The City is the home of the United Nations Headquarters, the world financial center at Wall Street and is the most expensive area of real estate in the world. New York was founded in 1624 as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic, and was first named New Amsterdam.

New York Winters are cold and damp while summers are hot and humid. Extreme temperatures in New York have ranged from minus 26 degrees celcius in winter up to 41 degrees celcius in summer. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in New York but there is always a chance they will strike the area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm to New York City in 2012.

1. Africa has 54 countries including Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria.

2. The highest point in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro which is located on the border of Tanzania and Kenya. Kilimanjaro is 5892 meters high.

3. The lowest point in Africa is Lake Assal which is located in central eastern Dijbouti. It is -156 meters below sea level.

4. The population of Africa is 1 billion. It is the 2nd most populated continent.

5. Nigeria has the highest population in Africa. It has 177 million inhabitatants.

6. The largest country by size is Algeria at 2.4 million sq km.

7. The most populated city in Africa is Lagos, Nigeria. which is the 24th most populated in the world.

8. The longest river in Africa is the Nile. The Nile River is 6695 Kilometers long and stretches through Sudan, Ethiopia and Egypt. It is the longest river in the world.

9. The hottest ever temperature recorded on Earth of 58 degrees celsius was in Libya, Africa in 1922.
The 4th continent we will visit is Africa. Africa is the second largest continent in size and is second most populated with over 1 billion inhabitants. Half of Africa is located in the Northern hemisphere and half in the south. It's split by the equator which runs through Kenya, Uganda, Congo and Gabon. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean sea to the north, Red Sea to the notheast, indian ocean to the East and Atlantic ocean to the west. The continet also includes Madagascar which is a large island near the southeast coast.

Africa is the hottest Continent on Earth and sixty percent of it's area is covered by desert and dry land. Africa's northern half is mostly deserts, but its central and southern areas has savanna plains and very dense jungle. Africa is home to the highest number of roaming wild animals in the world which include Cheetas, Buffalo, Lions, Elephants and Giraffes.

Africa is the world's poorest and underdeveloped Continent. Poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of water and poor health affect a large number of the people who live there. In Africa, a child dies every 30 seconds because of disease.

Victoria Falls is a waterfall on the border of Zimbabwe and Zambia.
It is not the highest waterfall in the world but at 1,708 meters wide it has the largest sheet of falling water in the world.

Suez Canal, Egypt - The Suez Canal is a man made canal and a very important trade route that connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It is located between Egypt and Saudia Arabia where the continents of Africa and Asia connect. It opened in 1869 and allows ships to pass between Europe and Asia without having to go all the way around Africa.

Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcanic mountain on the border of Tanzania and Kenya in central Africa. It is the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 metres high. It has three volcanic cones. Two of the cones are extinct, but the third cone is dormant and could errupt again.

The citadel of Saladin is a medieval fort which was built in 1182 and it is located on Mokattam hill which is near the center of Cairo, Egypt. It was built to protect the city of Cairo and functioned as a place of safety for the people durings attacks on the city.

The Citadel was built by Saladin who was the leader of the Muslim army during the third crusade and fought against Richard the Lionheart .

We learned about Saladin and the crusades during our history lessons and we will be able to visit his Citadel while we are in Cairo and stand in same place that he once stood.

1. There are 50 countries in europe including England, Italy and Germany.

2. The highest point in Europe is Mount Elbrus which is located in the western Caucasus mountain range in Russia. It is a dormant volcano and stands at 5642 meters high.

3. The lowest point in Europe is the Caspian sea. The caspain sea is bordered by Russia, Azerbajin, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.

4. The population of Europe is 738 million ( 3rd most populated continent in the world)

5. The most populated country in Europe is Russia with 143 million inhabitants .

6. The biggest country in Europe is Russia with 17 million sq km.

7. The most populated city in Europe is moscow with 15 million inhabitants.

8. The longest river in Europe is the Volga river which is located in central russia. The volga river flows through central russia and beyond.
The 5th continent we will visit is Europe. Europe is entirley within the Northern Hemisphere. Europe is bordered by the Artic ocean to the north, Mediterranean sea to the south, the Atlantic ocean to the west and to the east it borders with Asia. Europe has the largest economy on Earth with it's combined assests totaling over 32 trillion dollars. The continent of Europe is named after a Phoenician princess called Europa.

Colosseum, Rome, Italy - biult in 80 AD and is considered one of the romans finest work, it was built of concrete and stone. This mangnificent piece of architecture was built for a roman Emperor who was Titus vespasian. This was primarily used for gladiarorial competitions and would have contained 50 to 80 thousand spectators .

2. Brandenberg Gate, Berlin, Germany - built in 1791 and was formerly a city gate and is now a well known landmark of Germany. Brandenberg gate is located in the center of Berlin. Napoleon once past through the gates after the battle of jena Auersted.

3. Big Ben, London, England - Built in 1858, it is one of the three tallest free standing clock towers in the world. It has become one of the most recognisable symbols of London. It is located at the northend of the palace of Wesminster in London.

1. Asia has 49 countries including india, china and Japan.

2. The highest point in Asia is Mount Everest which is located in Nepal in the Himelayan mountain range. It is 8848 meters high.

3. The lowest point in Asia is the dead sea, it is located near jordan and isreal.

4. The population of Asia is over 4 billion ( 1st most populated in the world)

5. The most populated country in Asia is China with over 1 billion inhabitants.

6. The biggest country in Asia is Russia which is 17 million sq km

7. The most populated city in Asia is Tokyo in Japan, with 37 million.

8. The top 100 highest moutains in the world are all located in the Himalayas which is a major moutain range in Asia.
The 6th continent we will visit is Asia. Asia is primarily within the northern hemisphere. Asia borders Europe to the West, the Artic Ocean to the North, the Pacific Ocean to the East and the Indian Ocean to the South.

Asia is the world's largest continent and also has the highest population with 4.14 billion inhabitants which is 60% of the world's total population. Three of the top four economies in the world are in Asia ( China, Japan and India). Asia has the highest (Mt Everest) and lowest points (The Dead Sea) on Earth . Asia also has the third longest river in the world which is called the Yangtze which stretches for 6,300km.

Asia has a very diverse climate, ranging from being extremely cold in Siberia and Russia to very hot tropical climates in southern India. The most cyclone activity on the planet happens in south east Asia.

Mt Everest, Nepal - The highest mountain in Asia and the highest point anywhere on the planet earth. The mountain and the area surrounding it is home to many rare and endangered species such as the snow leopard and the giant panda.

Taj Mahal, India - A Mausoleum that was built in 1653 by Emperor Shan Jahan in memory of his third wife. The Taj Mahal is made completely
of white marble.

Great Wall of China , China - Construction on the wall began as early as the 7th century BC. The most famous part of the wall was built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. The entire wall was restored and rebuilt during the Ming Dynasty between 1368 and 1644.

The wall was built to protect the chinese empire against many intrusions from war like groups. The great wall of china is almost nine thousand km long.

1. There are 3 countries in Australia lincluding Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of Indonesia

2. The highest point in Australia is Mount Kosciuszko. It is located in New South Wales and is 2,228 meters high.

3. The lowest point in Australia is lake Eyre it is located in south Australia and is 12 meters below sea level.

4. The population of Australia is 36 million. Other than Antartica, Australia is the least most populated continent in the world.

5. The most populated country in Australia is mainland Australia with 23 million inhabnitants.

6. The biggest country in Australia is mainland Australia. It is 7 million sq km.

7. The most populated city in Australia is Sydney with 4.6 million inhabitants.

8. The longest river in Australia is The Murray River in South Australia , it is 2,375 km long.
The seventh and final continent we will visit is Australia. The continent of Australia is entirley within the southern hemisphere. Australia is bordered by the pacific ocean in the east, indonesia to the north and the indian ocean in the south and in the west. The continent of Australia is the smallest of the seven continents but is a part of a wider region known as "Oceania" which includes New Zealand and surrounding pacific islands.

The Australian Continent was originally joined with Antarctica as part of the southern supercontinent known as "Gondwana" until it broke away and drifted north.
Uluru, Northern Territorry, Australia - is also known as "Ayers Rock" and is a large sandstone rock formation located 335 km south west from the nearest town of Alice Springs. It is 348 meters high and has a circumference of 9.4 km

Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia - is located off the coast of Queensland in the Coral Sea and is the world's largest coral reef system that stretches over 2,600 km. The Reef can be seen from outer space.

Kakadu National Park, Northern Territitory, Australia - is located 171 km southeast from Darwin and is within the Aligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory.

Kakadu contains four major river systems, six major land forms and over 12 thousand different species of animals. It covers an area of 19, 804 sq km which is half the size of switzerland. As well as being a wildlife national park, it also contains the world's most productive uranium mines.
Easter Island, Chile - Is a island located in the southeastern pacific ocean and is 3,512 km off the west coast of Chile. It contains 887 unusual stone statues called the moai. These stone head statues are believed to be built by early settlers of easter island who were the Rapa Nui.
Machu Picchu, Peru - Machu Picchu is an Incan city that is 2,430 meters above sea level that was built in the 15th century for the Incan emperor Pachacuti. It was voted one of the new seven wonders of the world in a worldwide internet poll. It is one of the most important archaelogical sites in the world and one of the most visted tourist attractions in South America.
Galapagos islands, Equador - Is a small island located in the eastern Pacific Ocean 926 km of the western coast of Equador. The islands are famous for their vast number of animal species living there. The Island is where the famous scientist Charles Darwin first came up with the theory of Evolution in 1850 by studying the Island's Animals.
While we are are in New York we will be visiting the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbour. Found on Liberty Island, it is a statue designed by Frederick Bartholdi who was a french scultpor.

The Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognisable landmarks in the world. The statue was a gift from the people of France to the United States and the statue represents the Roman godess of Freedom, "LIbertas". She holds a torch in her right hand and a stone tablet in her left. The tablet is inscribed with the date, the fourth of july 1776 which is the date of the America's Independance.

Over 3 million tourists visit this statue every year, making it one of the most visited landmarks in the world.
Maracana Stadium, Rio
- During our stay in Brazil we will be going to watch a live soccer match at Maracana Stadium in Rio. Soccer is the national sport of Brazil and the FIFA Federations cup final will be played here on the 30th June 2013. Maracana stadium was built in 1950 and has been renovated three times, most recently in 2013. It has a capacity of 79 thousand people. It has previously hosted the 1950 world cup and will again host the world cup next year in 2014. The stadium will also be the main venue for the 2016 olympic and paralympic games.

I chose this event because Soccer is my favrioute sport and I would love to see a live Soccer match.
Copocabana and Ipanema Beach, Rio
Our first stop in Africa is Cape Coast in Ghana.

Ghana is a country located in noth west Africa on the Gulf of Guinea, a few degrees north of the Equator. Ghana has a tropical climate with the coastal areas being warm and dry, the southwest being hot and humid, and the north being hot and dry. There are only two main seasons in Ghana which are the wet and the dry seasons. The country consists of flat plains, low hills and a few rivers. Ghana has a population of 25 million people. It's capital city is Accra. Ghana is the second largest producer of cocoa in the world and it is one of the world's largest gold producers. Ghana is home to Lake Volta, which is the largest artificial lake in the world. The word Ghana means "Warrior King".

Cape Coast is a city in Southern Ghana located on the coast. Cape Coast is a very humid area but the sea breeze has some effect on the climate, making it cooler. Cape Coast is the ancestral home of the First Lady, Michelle Obama. She and president Obama visited the city in 2009. Ghana has great beaches, wild savannah, and dense rainforests. Although Ghana is a poor country, in recent times it has attracted new investments and businesses, however a large number of the poulation still live in poverty.

After arriving in Ghanas capital city, Acrra, we'll be taking a bus ride to Cape Coast to do Volunteer work with local kids for two weeks before stopping at Langma beach for a relaxing beach holiday on our return to Accra.
While we stay in Ghana, we'll be visiting Langma beach for our northern hemisphere beach holiday.

Along with the beach resorts of Bortianor and Kokrobite, Langma is a beach resort located along a stretch of beaches, 30 km west of Ghana's capital city of Accra. This stretch of beach front has the largest concentration of Beach Resorts in Ghana.

Langma is a beautiful and interesting beach where we'll be able to see turtles nesting, drink fresh coconuts on the beach and body surf the fantastic waves that come ashore. The clean white beach is dotted with hotels, guest houses, restaurants and beach resorts.

Spending a night on the beach here is very exciting. The nights are usually cool and breezy. There is no limit to what you can do. You could start the day with an early morning swim in the ocean, pull in the fishing nets with local fishermen after breakfast, laze around, or play sports on the beach.

In the evening we can enjoy local African drumming and dance or a live musical performance before going to bed with the peacful sound of the ocean waves.
France is located entirely in the northern hemisphere. It is bordered by Spain to the south and Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Italy to the east. The English channel separates France and the United Kingdom to the north and the Mediterranean Sea separates France from Africa in the South. The population of France is 66 million which is the 21st highest populated country in the World. France

generally has a temperate climate with cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean coast. France occasional experiences strong, cold, dry, winds known as "mistrals". France's terrain is mostly flat plains and gently rolling hills except for two main mountain ranges being the Pyrenees in the south and the Alps in the east.

Paris is the Capital and most populated city in France. Located on the river Seine in the northern France, Paris is one of the leading business and cultural centres in the world and has the status as one of the world's major global cities. Paris contains many important historical buildings and landmarks, the Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame cathedral and the Louvre Museum among them. Paris is known as "La Ville Lumiere" which means the city of light.

Built in 1889 and is named after Gustav Eiffel who designed and
built the tower. The tower is over 1000 ft high and is the tallest structure in Paris. It is the most visited monument in the world. 200 million people have visited the tower since it was built. We will be going to the top of the tower and having lunch in one of the restaurants while enjoying the breathtaking views of the city.

After landing at Zurich international airport Switzerland, we will take a short 2 hour coach journey to Zermatt where we will board the Glacier Express for a train journey through the mountains to get to our destination "St Moritz". The Glacier Express is an express train that connects the two major mountain resorts, St. Moritz and Zermatt in the Swiss Alps. It's a scenic trip through the mountains and will be a memorable way for us to travel to St Moritz. The journey will take about 7 hours and will pass through 91 tunnels and cross 291 bridges.

St Moritz is a resort town in southeast Switzerland and is widely known as one of the best winter holiday spots in Europe. St. Moritz hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and again in 1948. It is one of the most expensive ski resorts in the world. The sport of Bobsled was first invented in St. Moritz.

There are a variety of winter sports to enjoy in St Moritz including Skiing, snowboarding, ice skating and bobsleigh. There are also a number of snowsport schools to teach you if it's your first time. There are over 350 kilometers of ski slopes and 34 cosy restaurants.

We will have one amazing day having fun in the snow before we return via train to Zermatt then we get the return coach journey to Zurich airport.
Langma Beach, Ghana
Arc de Triomphe, Paris
Eiffel Tower, Paris
The Great Sphinx, Egypt
Our stop in Asia is Tokyo, Japan.

Entirely within northern hemisphere, Japan is an island chain in eastern Asia between the Pacific Ocean and the sea of Japan, east of the Korean peninsula. Japan has a total of 6,852 islands but the four largest islands make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan's climate varies from a hot, wet tropical climate in the south to a cool temperate climate in the north. Japan is a major economic power, having the world's third largest economy.

Japan has a total population of 127 million people and is the 10th most populated country in the world. Over 70% of Japan is forest and mountains that are unsuitable for agriculture, industry, or residential use and so the habitable areas are located mainly on the coast and have extremely high population densities. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.

The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone in the Pacific Ring with Japan itself having 108 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes resulting in tsunamis, happen several times each century. On 11th March 2011 a 9.0 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Japan with such force that it moved Japan's main Island Honshu by 2.4 metres east and shifted the Earth on its axis by up to 25 cm. The earthquake triggered a large tsunami resulting in 40 metre high waves that struck the coastal city of Miyako.

The Japanese characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".

Tokyo is the capital city of Japan and is the largest metropolitan area in the world. Tokyo is located on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu. Tokyo is considered as one of the three centers for the world economy, along with New York City and London. Tokyo is the most populated city in the world with over 36 million inhabitants.

Tokyo is near the boundary of three of the earth's tectonic plates and because of it's unstable location has been previously struck by numerous powerful earthquakes. In 1923 a 8.3 magnitude earthquake hit the city resulting in the death of 142 thousand people.

During our stay in Tokyo we'll be catching the train from Tokyo central station to Maihama station in Chiba, just outside of Tokyo to visit the 3rd most popular theme park in the world which is Tokyo Disneyland.

Tokyo Disneyland is 115 acre theme park consisting of several different themed areas such as Adventureland, Westernland and the World Bazzar. Tokyo Disneyland opened in 1983 and hosts 14 million visitors a year.

We'll get to go on spectacular rides such as Pirates of the Caribean, Splash Mountain and Star Tours: The Adventure Continue.
Tokyo Disneyland, Tokyo
Tokyo Tower, Tokyo
Kokugikan Sumo Stadium, Tokyo
Sumo is a full contact Japanese wrestling sport. Professional sumo can trace its roots back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment. The original wrestlers were samurai, often ronin, who needed to find an alternative form of income.

Kokugikan sumo stadium (also known as Ryougoku Sumo Hall) is an indoor sporting arena which is located in the Yokoami neighborhood in Tokyo. The stadium was built in 1985 and has a capacity of 13 thousand people. There are six Grand Sumo tournaments each year, three of these are held at the Sumo Hall in Tokyo.
The third Continent we'll be visiting is the frozen wilderness of Antartica.

Antartica is further south than any other continent. It is completely surround by the Southern Ocean and is where the South Pole is found. It is 14 million square kilometres, making it almost twice the size of Australia and the fifth largest continent by area. Ninety eight percent of Antarctica is covered in ice. The ice is about 1.6 kilometers thick.

Antartica is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent in the world and is classified as a desert. The temperature in Antarctica has reached up to −89 degrees celcius. There are no humans living in Antartica but over 5,000 people live there temporarily throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent.

In 1959, 49 countries signed The Antarctic Treaty preventing Military Activities, mineral mining, nuclear weapon testing or nuclear waste disposal on the continent. The treaty supports scientific research in Antartica and protects it habitat. Meteorites that crashed to earth millions of years ago that have been found frozen in Antartica's ice are a valuable source of scientific study.

A famous expedition with the objective to be the first to reach the South Pole in Antartica was led by Robert F. Scott between 1911 and 1912. They arrived at the southpole in January 1912 but found a Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had beaten them to the South Pole by 33 days. On the return trip all of them died.

Very few animals live in Antartica but those that do have adapted to the extreme climate. Penguins, whales, squids and fur seals are among those that live on the continent and in the waters surrounding it.
Our first stop in Europe is France where we will visit the city of Paris.
We will be leaving from Ushuaia in Argentina and will take a 10 day tour by ship to the South Shetland Islands on the Antartic Peninsula. During the trip we will see unique antartic wildlife such as penguins, seals, whales and orcas up close in the icy waters of "Drake Passage". We'll be hiking across the ice and wildlife spotting on the South Shetland Islands. We'll be visiting historical sites and for those people who are brave enough, taking a "polar plunge" into the sub zero waters of Neko Harbour.

At the completion of our tour we'll take the return cruise back to Ushuaia, Argentina before catching our return flight on the 16th of August back to Rio de Janeiro.
Located entirely within the southern hemisphere, Australia is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Australia is the flattest continent on earth with most of it's terrain being low plateau and deserts. It has a variety of diverse habitats, from moutainous alpine areas in southern parts of the country, fertile plains in the southeast and tropical rainforests in the far north. Generally Australia has an arid to semiarid climate with a temperate climate in south and east and a tropical climate in the north. The Australian climate is influenced by ocean currents, including warm water temperatures that deveop off the western coast of South America known as the "El Niño". El Niño is known to cause periodic drought in Australia and cyclones in the northern part of the country.

Australia has a population of 23 million inhabitants and has a population density of 2.8 people per square kilometre, which is amongst the lowest in the world. A large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south eastern coastline which include the major cities of Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne.

The highest point in Australia is Mount Kosciuszko located in the snowy mountains, New South Wales. Australia is home to many unique animals including the kangaroo, Koala and wombat.

Sydney is located on the south east coastline of Australia within the state of New South Wales. It has a temperate climate with warm summers and mild winters. Because of it's proximity to the ocean, the city itself is generally cooler and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. Extreme temperatures in Sydney have ranged from 45.8 degrees celcius in summer, to 2.1 degrees celcius in winter.
The sydney opera house is a multiple venue performing arts centre located on Sydney Harbour, New South Wales. It was constructed between 1959 and 1973 by a Danish architect named Jorn Utzon. It is one of the busiest performing arts centres in the world. It hosts over 1,500 performances each year which are attended by 1.2 million people. It is one of the most visited attractions in Australia, with more than seven million people visiting each year. There are seven seperate performance venues inside the Sydney Opera House including three theatres and a 2,769 seat concert hall. The Opera House also houses a recording studio, Cafes, Restaurants and shops.

We will visit this unique, architectural building and we'll be taking a one hour tour.
The Sydney Superdome is a large entertainment and sporting complex located in Olympic Park, Sydney that was built in 1991. The superdome is also known as the "Allphones Arena". The capacity of the Sydney superdome is 21 thousand people. The superdome is ranked one of the top ten Arenas in the world.

On the 2oth of September, we will be going to the Sydney SuperDome for the One Direction Concert, because I know the girls like One Direction and also because my favourite band, Coldplay aren't touring in 2013. But don't worry boys I'll spare you the embarrasement, we can wait outside.
For our cultural outing, classical event, we'll be going to see The Lion King musical at the Minskoff Theatre on Broadway, New York City. I have chosen this event because I know most of us would have seen the movie version of the Lion King as younger kids and I thought it would be good to see it as a musical that would appeal to all ages, in one of the most famous theatre areas in the world.

Broadway is a street located on the Island of Manhattan in New York City that is famous worldwide for the musicals and shows performed in over 40 theatres located there. Broadway is the oldest street in New York and has been dated back to the original settlement of the city.

The Lion King musical features many actors in animal costumes and also uses giant hollow puppets. The show is a musical based on the Disney animated film of the same name. The show is now Broadway's fifth longest running show in history. In April 2012, the Lion King became the number one Broadway show of all time by making more money than any other show in history.
Rio is the 2nd largest City in Brazil with a population of 12 million people. It's nickname in Spanish is "cidade Maravilhose" which means marvelous City. Rio will be the host city of "World Youth Day" in 2013, the FIFA world cup in 2014 and the Olympic games in 2016.

Rio has a warm climate all year round and some world famous beaches, so make sure you pack your togs!

Brisbane to Los Angeles via Auckland
Air New Zealand flight NZ138/NZ2
Departs 15:25 26 July Arrives 14:45 26 July
Duration 16h 20m - Distance 12,784 Km
Los Angeles, California to Casper, Wyoming via Denver, Colorado.
United Airlines flight UA1219 and UA6377
Departs 05:46 27 July arrives 11:46 27 July
Duration 5h - Distance 1,739 Km
Casper to New York via Denver
United Airlines flight UA5642/UA695
Departs 09:31 29 July - Arrives 17:07 29 July
Duration 5h 36m Distance 2,991 Km
New York to Rio de Janeiro
TAM Airlines flight JJ8079
Departs 19:10 1 August - Arrives 06:05 2 August
Duration 9h 55m Distance 7,750 Km
Continuing our journey from Rio we take a flight from
Rio, Brazil to Accra, Ghana via Sao Paulo, Argentina and Johanessburg, South Africa
TAM Airlines flight JJ3921 - South African Airlines SA223/ SA56
Departs 11:16 19 August - Arrives 17:10 20 August
Duration 26h 54m - Distance 12, 478 Km
Leaving Rio de Janeiro and South America, we will travel to the Continent of Antarctica. Because the continent is so remote, we have to first travel to the southern tip of Argentina to get there.

Rio de janeiro, Brazil to Ushuaia, Argentine via Buenos Aires, Argentina
Aerolineas flight 1295
departs 5:00 6 August - arrives 18:00 6 august
Duration 13h

return flight
Ushaia, Argentina to Rio De Janiero, Brazil via Buenos Aires, Argentina
Aerolineas flight 1857
departs 12:20 18 August - arrives 01:00 19 August
Duration 12h 40m
Ushuaia, Argentina to South Shetland Islands return to Ushaia, Argentina
Intrepid tours on Zodiac class cruise liner
departs 7 August returns 17 August
Duration 10 days
Accra, Ghana to Paris, France via Frankfurt, Germany
Lufthansa flight LH567
depart 20:45 6 september - Arrives 8:20 7 September
Duration 9h 35m
Distance 5,450 Km
Paris, France to Zurich, Switzerland
Air Swiss flight LX647
depart 7:05 10 September - Arrives 8:20 10 September
Duration 1h 15m
Distance 468 Km
Zurich, Switzerland to Cairo, Egypt via Milan, Italy
Air Swiss flight LX1628 and EgyptAir flight MS704
depart 12:25 12 September - Arrives 18:10 12 september
duration 5h 45m
distance 2,797 Km
Cairo, Egypt to Tokyo Japan via Copenhargen, Denmark
EgyptAir flight MS759 and SAS flight SK983
Depart 10:15 14 September Arrives 21:15 15 September
Duration 16h 20m
Distance 11,693 Km
Brisbane to Los Angeles via Auckland
Air New Zealand flight NZ138/NZ2
Departs 15:25 26 July Arrives 14:45 26 July Duration 16h 20m
Distance 12,784 Km
Tokyo, Japan to Sydney, Australia via Seoul, South Korea
Asiana airlines flight OZ103
Depart 13:30 18 September Arrives 7:40 19 september
Duration 17h 10m
Distance 9,562 Km
Day 1-
Brisbane to Los Angeles via Auckland
Air New Zealand flight NZ138/NZ2
Departs 15:25 26 July Arrives 14:45 26 July
Duration 16h 20m - Distance 12,784 Km

Day 2-
Los Angeles, California to Casper, Wyoming via Denver, Colorado.
United Airlines flight UA1219 and UA6377
Departs 05:46 27 July arrives 11:46 27 July
Duration 5h - Distance 1,739 Km

Day 3-
Wyoming Dinosaur Centre, Casper Wyoming

Day 4-
Casper to New York via Denver
United Airlines flight UA5642/UA695
Departs 09:31 29 July - Arrives 17:07 29 July
Duration 5h 36m Distance 2,991 Km

Day 5-
Sightseeing tour New York City
Empire State Building & Statue of Liberty

Day 6 -
Lion King, the Musical - Minskoff Theatre, Broadway, New York
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Day 7- Day 8
New York to Rio de Janeiro
TAM Airlines flight JJ8079
Departs 19:10 1 August - Arrives 06:05 2 August
Duration 9h 55m Distance 7,750 Km

Day 9 -
Sightseeing tour Rio de Janeiro
Mount Corcovado (Christ the the reedeemer)

Day 10 -
Beach Activities and relaxation Ipanema and Copocabana Beach

Day 11 -
Attend Soccer match at Maracana Stadium, Rio

Day 12 -
Rio de janeiro, Brazil to Ushuaia, Argentina via Buenos Aires, Argentina
Aerolineas flight 1295
departs 5:00 6 August - arrives 18:00 6 august
Duration 13h

Day 13 to 23 -
10 day cruise to South Shetland Islands, Antartica

Day 24 -
return flight
Ushaia, Argentina to Rio De Janiero, Brazil via Buenos Aires, Argentina
Aerolineas flight 1857
departs 12:20 18 August - arrives 01:00 19 August
Duration 12h 40m

Day 25 - Day 26
Rio, Brazil to Accra, Ghana
TAM Airlines flight JJ3921 - South African Airlines SA223/ SA56
Departs 11:16 19 August - Arrives 17:10 20 August
Duration 26h 54m - Distance 12, 478 Km

Day 27 to 41 -
14 days volunteer work helping children in Cape Coast, Ghana

Day 42 -
Beach activities and relaxation in Beach, Ghana.

Day 43 -
Accra, Ghana to Paris, France via Frankfurt, Germany
Lufthansa flight LH567
depart 20:45 6 september - Arrives 8:20 7 September
Duration 9h 35m Distance 5,450 Km

Day 44-
Sightseeing tour Paris. Eiffel Tower/Arc De Triomphe

Day 45-
Attend final leg of Tour De France

Day 46-
Paris, France to Zurich, Switzerland
Air Swiss flight LX647
depart 7:05 10 September - Arrives 8:20 10 September
Duration 1h 15m Distance 468 Km
Glacier express Zermat to St Moritz

Day 47 -
Winter sport activities in St Moritz.

Day 48 - Glacier express return St Moritz to Zermat

Day 49 -
Zurich, Switzerland to Cairo, Egypt via Milan, Italy
Air Swiss flight LX1628 and EgyptAir flight MS704
depart 12:25 12 September - Arrives 18:10 12 september
duration 5h 45m
distance 2,797 Km
Sydney, Australia to Brisbane Australia
Virgin Australia Flight VA 909
Departs 07:00 - Arrives 08:30
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