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CLASSIFYING INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA

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by

Judith Gales

on 31 August 2014

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Transcript of CLASSIFYING INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA

GOAL
At the end of the lesson,
the student is expected to:
1. Identify the bands of the
Cone of Experience;

OBJECTIVES
CLASSIFYING INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA
2. Illustrate examples of the bands
of the Cone of Experience in
particular subject matters; and

3. Classify media.

5. According to pacing of media content- Media could be static, which does not flow spontaneously or dynamic, which portrays continuous sequence of events.
Static- filmstrips, books, chalkboards, slides.
Dynamic- television, motion pictures, audio recordings.

c. Audiovisual materials- include television, films, videotapes, demonstrations, study trips, printed materials with recorded sounds.

11. DIRECT, PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES
-Directly involving the class in certain activities of the group such as planting, harvesting, praying and the like is both experiential and participatory.

9. DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES
-Dramatization by some members of the class who may have done some research about the cultural group is a result of participatory learning.
10. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES
-Simulating certain activities or physical aspects of the local culture so that the experiences become more real is a valuable way to learn and express one’s learning.

The cone features the learner as the participant at the base and proceeds to being an observant of a mediated experience at the middle.
The cone suggest the most appropriate medium a teacher can use to teach an abstract concept.

The cone of experience consists of bands which
arrange media used in learning experiences from the most abstract.

8. According to electronic requirement- Media could be non-technical or technical.
Non-Technical-Media- still pictures, models, charts, and puppets.
Technical Media- overhead projectors, language laboratory, cassette recorders, and computers.

6. According to accessibility- Media could be for solo use as in the case of books or computer-aided instruction materials or for group use as in the case of projected media, radio, recordings, television, and the like.
7. According to cost- Media could be low cost like newspapers on high cost like computers.

2. According to projection- Media could be projected on the screen, or non-projected.
a. Projected Media- transparencies, slides, films or filmstrips, opaque projection materials.
b. Non-Projected Media- photographs, still pictures, objects and the like.

The enactive part forms the bases of all other learning experiences. This refer to the direct or actual experiences. The iconic part refers to abstract experiences in the form of pictures while the symbolic part represents the forming of a mental image in the absence of a concrete object.

THREE-FOLD ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE

8. DEMONSTRATIONS
-Demonstration by an authority or a resource person about certain activities or rituals of the group is a form of actual learning.

6. EXHIBITS
-Exhibits of artifacts, tools, costumes, and other material aspects of the culture is a good type of educational media.
7. STUDY TRIPS
-Conducting a field trip to a local community is a tool towards experiential learning.

2. VISUAL SYMBOLS
- Contains graphs, cartoons, comic strips, and other visual symbols.

At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to:
1. Identify the bands of the Cone of Experience;
2. Illustrate examples of the bands of the Cone of Experience in particular subject matters; and
3. Classify media.

OBJECTIVES

CLASSIFYING
INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA

4. According to dimensions- Media can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional.
Two-dimensional- flat pictures, posters, flashcards, charts, maps, transparencies.

3. According to literacy requirement- Some forms of media like books, chalkboards, teaching machines, or computers require the user’s ability to manipulate and understand symbols while others can be understood and appreciated
even by an untrained user,
like television, motion
pictures, filmstrips or cartoons.

In one of the first textbooks written about the use of audiovisual materials, Hoban, Hoban and Zissman, as cited by Hienich (1996), stated that the value of instructional media is a function of their degree of realism.

HIERARCHY OF ABSTRACTION

Jerome Bruner, a psychologist, devised another classification of media parallel to Dale’s, in what he called Three-Fold Analysis of Experience, however, emphasized more on the nature of mental operations of the learner and not the stimuli.

THREE-FOLD ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE

3. RECORDING, RADIO, STILL PICTURES
-It involves recording of folk songs or conversations in the native dialect and/or still pictures showing costumes or any significant activities of the group.

For example, a social studies class studying the culture of a certain ethnic group has a choice of one of the following media:

1. VERBAL SYMBOLS
- It includes textbooks and other printed materials and plain lecture about the group.

(April 27, 1900 in Benson, Minnesota, – March 8, 1985 in Columbus, Ohio) was an American educationist who developed the Cone of Experience. He made several contributions to audio and visual instruction, including a methodology for analyzing the content of motion pictures.

Edgar Dale

Authorities in educational technology have varied views on the classification of instructional media. One of the most popular of these classifications is the Cone of Experience by Edgar Dale.

CONE OF EXPERIENCE

b. Three-dimensional- real objects, models, mock-ups, dioramas, exhibits.

b. Visual Materials- include pictures, photographs, flashcards, flip books, charts, maps, posters, exhibits, bulletin boards, dioramas, models, mock-ups, slides, filmstrips, transparencies, chalkboards, cartoon, etc.

Other schemes for categorizing instructional media are as follows:
1. According to sense modality- Media could be audio, visual or audiovisual.
Audio Materials-
include radio, recording,
language laboratories.

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA

4. MOTION PICTURES
-It is about movies or films on a certain group.
5. EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION
-Televised lecture or show about the group is an excellent tool to raise awareness and shared understanding.
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