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Gothic: Jane Eyre
Transcript of Gothic: Jane Eyre
Vol. II--Gothic Gothic Overview WHY Stock Conventions
Sublime and Beautiful
Why Setting: Thornfield (previously discuessed)
Narrative: is an account of an event or sequence of events that are real or invented.
Gothic's mood: fear, anxiety, terror, and horror
Gothic literature evokes the same kind of emotional response from its readers as do nightmares and night terrors (examples to come)
Diction: Usually archaic and formal language, especially in dialogue. STYLE: Gothic literature provides contemporary readers insight into the social and intellectual climate of the time in which the literature was produced. Mood: examples: Vol II: In the end, all of these traits of Gothic literature gives the reader anxiety and suspense as to Jane Eyre's life and this is exactly what the Gothic is suppose to do. The Gothic elements help emphasize terror and horror throughout the novel.
***It gives meaning to the story so far because the feelings expressed by Jane are felt by the reader, giving us, hope and fear as to the future.
Overall: The themes give the impression that Jane is confined to her social class which she feels it is an injustice and she is terrified of it. She doesn't appreciate the social norm and often defies it on most accounts. However her injustice was almost justified with her marriage to Rochester, but in reality the marriage was a scheme. BY: Sammie Brewer & Taylor Reese Stock Conventions
of Gothic Litature intricate plot
supernatural occurrences Vol I: Jane's Story from Gateshead to Lowood to Thornfield
Mr. Rochester's flashback to Celine Vol II:
-Mystery of Grace Poole
-Courtship of Rochester and Miss Ingram
- Gypsy Mother
-Mr. Mason's arrival
-Jane's return to Gateshed
- Servant's & Master's Love Affair and Wedding
-Rochester's Wife The stock characters of Gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatales, monks, nuns, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, angels, fallen angels, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jew and the Devil himself. That of Jane Eyre include:
-femme fatales: An attractive and seductive woman, esp. one who will ultimately bring disaster to a man who becomes involved with her.
-"vampyre" (also the madwoman) (page 317)
- Byronic hero (Rochester)
"And as for the vague something--was it a sinister or a sorrowful, a designing or a desponding expression?--that opened upon a careful observer, now and then, in his eye, and closed again before one could fathom the strange depth partially disclosed; that something which used to make me fear and shrink, as if I had been wandering amongst volcanic-looking hills, and had suddenly felt the ground quiver, and seen it gape: that something, I, at intervals, beheld still; and with throbbing heart, but not with palsied nerves. Instead of wishing to shun, I longed only to dare--to divine it; and I thought Miss Ingram happy, because one day she might look into the abyss at her leisure, explore its secrets and analyse their nature" (page 213). http://www.platypusart.com/whatisgoth/pages/Literature.html
(where i got the stock conventions)
Literary Movements for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Literary Movements. Ed. Ira Mark Milne. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2009. p281-309. From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
http://www.cacioppe.com/writings/gothic-beauty-01 Sources Cited Thornfield is the ruined castle. This is the primary setting in Vol. II
"for Thornfield is a fine old hall, rather neglected of late years perhaps" (page 112) Gothic Themes: -Terror and Horror
-Appearance and Reality
-Justice and Injustice Terror and Horror Terror: grows out of suspense
-character experiences in anticipation of some dreaded event Horror: produces disgust
- character experiences horror when event really happens Terror Examples: Horror: Appearance and Reality Dreams are not always distinguished, therefore giving a nightmarish atmosphere to the narrative and dreams appear to be real until awakening. Examples: Confinement: It is the lack of escape that causes the terrifying claustrophobia.
Examples of this are confinement to: social class, emotional, gender, and phyical. The space of the Gothic novel is claustrophobic and confining, tapping into a primal human fear. The struggle against the confinement elicits both horror and terror in the reader. Justice and Injustice In the Gothic world, justice must ultimately triumph, even if the justice that is meted out is severe. Examples: By removing the setting of the novel from contemporary locations and time periods allowed Gothic writers to infuse their works with the fear of the unknown, mysterious occur-rences, and strange, unusual customs.
And...Gothic writers infuse the setting with the emotions of the characters so that the reader as a physical description of those emotions. With so much going on, it gives the reader anxiety as well Jane, because there are to many incidents without conclusions. This is what Gothic strives for--anxiety. Some these characters represent the worst and others represent the best of the human psyche to show that humans are not always good. This allows terror and horror & fear and anxiety to exist since the reader doesn't know what is to happen. page 175: terror-suspense as to what to come and she has anxiety: “I both wished and feared to see Mr Rochester on the day which followed this sleepless night: I wanted to hear his voice again, yet feared to meet his eye.”
pg. 186: of what the letter said: “Why my hand shook, and why I involuntarily spilt half the contents of my cup into my saucer, I did not choose to consider.”
pg 193: Jane fears to go into the drawing room with Adele and the party: “It was with some trepidation that I perceived the hour approach when I was to repair with my charge to the drawing-room.”
pg 218: of the telling of fortunes: “Again Sam vanished; and mystery, animation, expectation rose to full flow once more.”
pg 218: of what is happening to Blanche: “A comparative silence ensued. Lady Ingram thought it "le cas" to wring her hands: which she did accordingly. Miss Mary declared she felt, for her part, she never dared venture. Amy and Louisa Eshton tittered under their breath, and looked a little frightened.” 236: terror by jane she describes it: “Here then I was in the third storey, fastened into one of its mystic cells; night around me; a pale and bloody spectacle under my eyes and hands; a murderess hardly separated from me by a single door: yes--that was appalling--the rest I could bear; but I shuddered at the thought of Grace Poole bursting out upon me.” +dark imagery gives to the gothic element
Pg 248: dreams with children: "Of late I had often recalled this saying and this incident; for during the past week scarcely a night had gone over my couch that had not brought with it a dream of an infant, which I sometimes hushed in my arms, sometimes dandled on my knee, sometimes watched playing with daisies on a lawn, or again, dabbling its hands in running water. It was a wailing child this night, and a laughing one the next: now it nestled close to me, and now it ran from me; but whatever mood the apparition evinced, whatever aspect it wore, it failed not for seven successive nights to meet me the moment I entered the land of slumber.”
pg 249:supernatural is the actual connection of her dream to the death of her cousin: “"Mr. John died yesterday was a week, at his chambers in London." page 175: Horror of seeing Grace after the fire in Rochester's room: “ That woman was no other than Grace Poole.”
pg 219: Blanche is horrified and angry by what the gypsy tells her: “Miss Ingram took a book, leant back in her chair, and so declined further conversation. I watched her for nearly half-an-hour: during all that time she never turned a page, and her face grew momently darker, more dissatisfied, and more sourly expressive of disappointment. She had obviously not heard anything to her advantage: and it seemed to me, from her prolonged fit of gloom and taciturnity, that she herself, notwithstanding her professed indifference, attached undue importance to whatever revelations had been made her.
pg 220: some of the girls from the party return: "I am sure she is something not right!" they cried, one and all. "She told us such things! She knows all about us!" and they sank breathless into the various seats the gentlemen hastened to bring them. 229: Rochester is horrified of Mason's arrival: “As I spoke he gave my wrist a convulsive grip; the smile on his lips froze: apparently a spasm caught his breath."Mason!--the West Indies!" he said, in the tone one might fancy a speaking automaton to enounce its single words; "Mason!--the West Indies!" he reiterated; and he went over the syllables three times, growing, in the intervals of speaking, whiter than ashes: he hardly seemed to know what he was doing.
pg 236-7: Jane is watching over Mason: "I must watch this ghastly countenance--these blue, still lips forbidden to unclose--these eyes now shut, now opening, now wandering through the room, now fixing on me, and ever glazed with the dulness of horror. I must dip my hand again and again in the basin of blood and water, and wipe away the trickling gore.”
pg 327: "Ghosts are usually pale, Jane."
"This, sir, was purple: the lips were swelled and dark; the brow furrowed: the black eyebrows widely raised over the bloodshot eyes. Shall I tell you of what it reminded me?"
"Of the foul German spectre -- the Vampyre."
"Ah! -- what did it do?"
"Sir, it removed my veil from its gaunt head, rent it in two parts, and flinging both on the floor, trampled on them."
Byronic Hero: he can be regarded as a rebellious yet charismatic outsider, often prone to passionate if self-destructive behaviour. Also: the two main settings in Vol. II have meaning:
Gateshead or the "head"ing of a journey and the "gates" hold Jane back from that journey.
That journey is her emotional journey in which she arrives to Thornfield. Thornfield: A 'field' is suppose to nurture the seedling of Jane's inner emotions-love. However, the 'thorn's take over and rip out the seedling's roots. Examples of setting and emotions reflecting page 180: Jane’s thoughts are darkening b/c Rochester has not returned from the party:
“Darkness only came in through the window.”
pg. 266 something sad is about to happen: “The rain beat strongly against the panes, the wind blew tempestuously...” AND something sad does happen->
pg. 269: “...at twelve o’clock that night she died" as in Mrs. Reed.
pg. 324: “But, sir, as it grew dark, the wind rose: it blew yesterday evening, not as it blows now -- wild and high -- but 'with a sullen, moaning sound' far more eerie.” pg 200: “incubi” women who attract men and have sex with them: Ingram speaks of governesses
pg 217--‘“To tell the gentry their fortunes”
pg 223: "...the fine people flitting before you like shapes in a magic-lantern: just as little sympathetic communion passing between you and them as if they were really mere shadows of human forms, and not the actual substance." (the gypsy speaking to Jane about her life)
pg 232: full moon = to craziness: “when the moon, which was full and bright (for the night was fine), came in her course to that space in the sky ... her glorious gaze roused me. Awaking in the dead of night, I opened my eyes on her disk--silver- white and crystal clear. It was beautiful, but too solemn...”
pg 235: this leads to Jane’s conclusion that a vampire came to visit her room: “I heard thence a snarling, snatching sound, almost like a dog quarrelling.” Also, this leaves the reader wondering at what the mystery of Thornfield really is--natural or supernatural and gives the reader a fear of whats to come---ALL Gothic elements
pg 338: Mr. Rochester flung me behind him: the lunatic sprang and grappled his throat viciously, and laid her teeth to his cheek: they struggled. She was a big woman, in stature almost equaling her husband, and corpulent besides: she showed virile force in the contest -- more than once she almost throttled him, athletic as he was.
pg 239: more evidence that the thing in the attic is a vampire: “This wound was not done with a knife: there have been teeth here!" & “"She sucked the blood: she said she'd drain my heart," said Mason.”
+ vampires are a stock character in Gothic lit Supernatural Occurrences pg 225: Jane is in a dream like world: “"The eagerness of a listener quickens the tongue of a narrator." I said this rather to myself than to the gipsy, whose strange talk, voice, manner, had by this time wrapped me in a kind of dream. One unexpected sentence came from her lips after another, till I got involved in a web of mystification; and wondered what unseen spirit had been sitting for weeks by my heart watching its workings and taking record of every pulse.”
pg 227: Jane returns to reality: “Where was I? Did I wake or sleep? Had I been dreaming? Did I dream still? The old woman's voice had changed: her accent, her gesture, and all were familiar to me as my own face in a glass--as the speech of my own tongue.”
pg 237: Jane sees the panels move: “According as the shifting obscurity and flickering gleam hovered here or glanced there, it was now the bearded physician, Luke, that bent his brow; now St. John's long hair that waved; and anon the devilish face of Judas, that grew out of the panel, and seemed gathering life and threatening a revelation of the arch-traitor--of Satan himself--in his subordinate's form.”
pg 242: Rochester: “you cannot discern that the gilding is slime and the silk draperies cobwebs; that the marble is sordid slate, and the polished woods mere refuse chips and scaly bark. Now HERE" (he pointed to the leafy enclosure we had entered) "all is real, sweet, and pure."
pg 321: "I cannot see my prospects clearly to-night, sir; and I hardly know what thoughts I have in my head. Everything in life seems unreal."
"Except me: I am substantial enough -- touch me."
"You, sir, are the most phantom-like of all: you are a mere dream."
pg 327: Just at my bedside, the figure stopped: the fiery eyes glared upon me -- she thrust up her candle close to my face, and extinguished it under my eyes. I was aware her lurid visage flamed over mine, and I lost consciousness: for the second time in my life -- only the second time -- I became insensible from terror."
pg 326: “No one answered; but a form emerged from the closet; it took the light, held it aloft, and surveyed the garments pendent from the portmanteau. 'Sophie! Sophie!' I again cried: and still it was silent. I had risen up in bed, I bent forward: first surprise, then bewilderment, came over me; and then my blood crept cold through my veins. Mr. Rochester, this was not Sophie, it was not Leah, it was not Mrs. Fairfax: it was not -- no, I was sure of it, and am still -- it was not even that strange woman, Grace Poole."
Exapmles: pg. 185: confinement of her class as well as her looks: “‘...He is not your order: keep to your caste; and be too self-respecting to lavish the love of the whole heart, soul, and strength, where such a gift is not wanted and would be despised.’”
pg. 187 Poole: “Only one hour in the twenty-four did she pass with her fellow-servants below; all the rest of her time was spent in some low-ceiled, oaken chamber of the third story...as companionless as a prisoner in his dungeon.”
pg. 189: Jane's confinement of self: “I should not be called upon to quit my sanctum of the school-room; for a sanctum it was now become to me, -’a very pleasant refuge in time of trouble.’
pg. 189: Adele's confinement: “...she must not on any account think of venturing in sight of the ladies, either now or at any other time, unless expressly sent for:” (--showing soc norm of the day)
pg 205: confinement of Rochester’s emotions: “If I had time, and was not in mortal dread of some prating prig of a servant passing, I would know what all this is means...I expect you to appear in the drawing-room every evening; it is my wish; don’t neglect it. Not go...Good-night, my --’ He stopped, bit his lip, and abruptly left me.” pg 222: Jane's confinement of self by gypsy: ”You are cold, because you are alone: no contact strikes the fire from you that is in you. You are sick; because the best of feelings, the highest and the sweetest given to man, keeps far away from you. You are silly, because, suffer as you may, you will not beckon it to approach, nor will you stir one step to meet it where it waits you."
pg 222: Jane only needs to break through the social norm to achieve her wants: “If you knew it, you are peculiarly situated: very near happiness; yes, within reach of it. The materials are all prepared; there only wants a movement to combine them. Chance laid them somewhat apart; let them be once approached and bliss results."
pg. 236: confinement to the outer room to Bertha’s chamber: “ I experienced a strange feeling as the key grated in the lock, and the sound of his retreating step ceased to be heard.”
pg 245: Rochester's confinement: “Heart-weary and soul-withered, you come home after years of voluntary banishment...” Sometimes the child pays for the father's sins, so to speak. page 183: “That a greater fool than Jane Eyre had never breathed the breath of life: that a more fantastic idiot had never surfeited herself on sweet lies, and swallowed poison as if it were nectar.” --injustice
pg 199: Jane tries to justify her love for Rochester: “‘he is not of their kind. I believe he is of mine;--I am sure he is,--I feel akin to him...”
pg 226: justice in the workings: "Your fortune is yet doubtful: when I examined your face, one trait contradicted another. Chance has meted you a measure of happiness: that I know. I knew it before I came here this evening. She has laid it carefully on one side for you. I saw her do it. It depends on yourself to stretch out your hand, and take it up: but whether you will do so, is the problem I study. Kneel again on the rug."
pg 245: Rochester's justice: “...you find in this stranger much of the good and bright qualities which you have sought for twenty years, and never before encountered; and they are all fresh, healthy, without soil and without taint...”
Pg. 248: John's justice: “He could not do worse: he ruined his health and his estate amongst the worst men and the worst women. He got into debt and into jail: his mother helped him out twice, but as soon as he was free he returned to his old companions and habits. His head was not strong: the knaves he lived amongst fooled him beyond anything I ever heard. He came down to Gateshead about three weeks ago and wanted missis to give up all to him. Missis refused: her means have long been much reduced by his extravagance; so he went back again, and the next news was that he was dead. How he died, God knows!--they say he killed himself."
Pg 250: Mrs. Reed's justice: she pays for her son’s sins: "Missis had been out of health herself for some time.”
pg 334: "Who are you?" he asked of the intruder.
"My name is Briggs, a solicitor of -- Street, London."
"And you would thrust on me a wife?"
"I would remind you of your lady's existence, sir, which the law recognises, if you do not."
"Favour me with an account of her -- with her name, her parentage, her place of abode." pg 224: anxiety since the gyspy speaks of Grace: Mrs. Poole--"I started to my feet when I heard the name.
pg 232: fear and anxiety: "My pulse stopped: my heart stood still; my stretched arm was paralysed. The cry died, and was not renewed. Indeed, whatever being uttered that fearful shriek could not soon repeat it: not the widest-winged condor on the Andes could, twice in succession, send out such a yell from the cloud shrouding his eyrie. The thing delivering such utterance must rest ere it could repeat the effort. (scream before Mason)
pg 235: the circumstance gives the reader anxiety and fear from the description of Mason: “I recognised in his pale and seemingly lifeless face--the stranger, Mason: I saw too that his linen on one side, and one arm, was almost soaked in blood.”
pg 237: anxiety and fear: Jane is over thinking and scares herself: “Then my own thoughts worried me. What crime was this that lived incarnate in this sequestered mansion, and could neither be expelled nor subdued by the owner?--what mystery, that broke out now in fire and now in blood, at the deadest hours of night? What creature was it, that, masked in an ordinary woman's face and shape, uttered the voice, now of a mocking demon, and anon of a carrion-seeking bird of prey?”
pg 317: I shut the closet to conceal the strange, wraith-like apparel it contained; which, at this evening hour -- nine o'clock -- gave out certainly a most ghostly shimmer through the shadow of my apartment. "I will leave you by yourself, white dream," I said. "I am feverish: I hear the wind blowing: I will go out of doors and feel it." pg 212: “the less I felt justified in judging and blaming either him or Miss Ingram for acting in conformity to ideas and principles instilled into them, doubtless, from their childhood. All their class held these principles: I supposed, then, they had reasons for holding them such as I could not fathom. It seemed to me that, were I a gentleman like him, I would take to my bosom only such a wife as I could love; but the very obviousness of the advantages to the husband's own happiness offered by this plan convinced me that there must be arguments against its general adoption of which I was quite ignorant: otherwise I felt sure all the world would act as I wished to act.” Movement Variations: Detective Fiction Even though there are no actual detectives, Jane acts as one by piecing together the mystery of Grace Poole (Bertha). pg. 188: “...-that there was a mystery at Thornfield; and that from participation in that mystery, I was purposely excluded.” --Jane overhears servants speaking about Grace thus leaving suspense
pg. 234: Jane announces: "The sounds I had heard after the scream, and the words that had been uttered, had probably been heard only by me; for they had proceeded from the room above mine: but they assured me that it was not a servant's dream which had thus struck horror through the house; and that the explanation Mr. Rochester had given was merely an invention framed to pacify his guests." Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful Sublime: It is concerned with the spiritual wonderment experienced by an individual after he or she is emotionally affected by an awe-inspiring situation that is almost always related to a scene of natural grandeur.
Beauty: To the Gothic mind beauty was the radiance of truth, a manifestation of Divinity. pg. 195: beauty: “straight and tall as poplars...but Blanche was moulded like a Dian.”
pg. 196: beauty: “The noble bust, the sloping shoulders, the graceful neck, the dark eyes and black ringlets were all there:”
pg 198: sublime and beauty: description of Rochester by Jane: “My master’s colourless, clive face, square, massive brow, broad and jetty eyebrows, deep eyes, strong features, firm, grim mouth,--all energy,decision, will,--were not beautiful, according to rule; but they were more than beautiful to me:”
pg. 269: sublimeness of Mrs. Reed’s corpse: “There was stretched Sarah Reed's once robust and active frame, rigid and still: her eye of flint was covered with its cold lid; her brow and strong traits wore yet the impress of her inexorable soul. A strange and solemn object was that corpse to me. I gazed on it with gloom and pain: nothing soft, nothing sweet, nothing pitying, or hopeful, or subduing did it inspire; only a grating anguish for HER woes--not MY loss--and a sombre tearless dismay at the fearfulness of death in such a form.”