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A.P. Biology Ecology Unit
Transcript of A.P. Biology Ecology Unit
between organisms and environment Organismal Ecology
Population Ecology Community Ecology
Landscape Ecology Emphasis on the energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components. Abiotic factors- non-living components
Biotic factors- living components
Biota- all organisms Vocabulary Deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community focusing on predation,competition,and disease as well as abiotic factors. Vocabulary Community- consists of all the organisms of all the species that inhabit a particular area, it is an assemblance of populations. Population- a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area Explains how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by the environment. Concentrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of a particular species live in an area. Deals with arrays of ecosystem and how they are arranged in a geographic region. What is Dispersal? Dispersal is the movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin. It also contributes to the global distribution of organisms. What affects the dispersal of organisms? Habitat selection- when an animal or plant avoids a habitat even though they could live in that habitat.
Biotic factors- bad interactions with other organisms in the area.
Preditation- getting hunted by unfamiliar organisms
Herbivory- getting eaten by unfamiliar organisms
Abiotic factors that effect the global distribution of organisms and examples of how they affect the organisms. a. Temperature- the effects on biological processes, and organisms internal temperature is affected by temperature change which can cause many problems in survival and even death.
Climate Formed by four abiotic factors, Temperature, water, sunlight, and wind. macroclimate microclimate
b. Water- water availability, and aquatic organisms are limited to areas with freshwater or saltwater which is limited by their ability for asmoregulation.
c. Sunlight-in aquatic environments the amount of sunlight limits the distribution of photosynthetic organisms, and light is also important in the development and behavior of the many organisms that are sensitive to the relative lengths of daytime and nighttime.
d. Wind- wind amplifies the affects of temperature change and increase heat loss, it also contributes to water loss.
e. Rocks and Soil- the physical structure, pH, and mineral composition of rocks and soil limit the distribution of plants which in turn limits the distribution of animals, and in marine animals the composition of the substrate determines whether that organisms can attach of burrow in it. Very fine climate patterns, like those underneath a fallen log. Climate patterns on the global, regional, and local level. Climate can be effectd by their proximity to large bodies of water, or topographic features such as mountain ranges. Seasonal variation is another influence on climate. Seasonality makes the temperature change when the seasons change. The temperature change affects the lakes. Turnover During the winter and summer lakes are stratified or layered by temperature, these lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters as a result of changing temperature. This mixing is called turnover. Turnover brings oxygenated water from the lakes surface to the bottom and the nutrient-rich water from the bottom to the top in both the autumn and the spring. Zonation in a Lake The lake environment is generally classified on the basis of three physical criteria: light pentration (photic and aphotic zones), distance from shore and water depth (littoral and limnetic zones), and whether it is open water (pelagic zone) or bottom (benthic zone). pelagic zone Marine Zonation Like lakes, the marine environment is generally classified on the basis of light pentration (photic and zphotic zones), distance from shore and water depth (interidal,neritic and oceanic zones), and whether it is open water (pelagic zone) or bottom (benthic and abyssal zones). Aquatic Biomes lakes oligotrophic- are nutrient-poor and oxygen rich
- decomposable matter low
- photosynthesis rates low eutrophic- nutrient rich and oxygen poor
- decomposable matter high
- photosynthesis rates are high wetlands basin wetlands- Develop in shallow basins, ranging from upland depressions to filled-in lakes and ponds. riverine wetlands- Develop along shallow and periodicall flooded banks of rivers and streams. fringe wetlands- Occur along the coasts of large lakes and seas, where water flows back and forth because of rising lake levels or tidal action. among the most productive biomes on Earth streams and rivers headwaters- Cold,clear,turbulent,swift,oxygen rich, narrow, rocky bottomed. rivers- Sustanial oxygen,wide, meandering,silty, more salt and nutrient rich than headwaters, warmer,turbid. estuaries one of the most productive biomes on Earth Complex flow patterns, both freshwater and salt water, complex network of tidal channels, island, natural levees, and mudflats, and the salinity varies. Abundance of worms, oysters, crabs, and many fish, salt marsh grasses and algae are the producers of estuaries. transition are between the river and the sea. intertidal zones upper zones- Oxygen levels high, renewed with each turn of the tides. rocky intertidal zones- Animals have structural adaptions that enable them to attach to the hard aubstrate, marin algae. sandy intertidal zones- Protected by lagoons or bays,support sea grass and algae, suspension-feeding worms, clams, and predatory crustaceans,lack attached plants or algae. oceanic pelagic biome Vast open blue water, constantly mixed, photic zone deepened, high oxygen levels, low nutrient levels, turnover in spring and fall, covers 70% of earth's surface, average depth of 4,000 m, protozoans, worms, copepods, krill, jellies, free-swimming animals, zooplankton. coral reefs Limited to photic zones, sensitive to temperatures, formed by calcium carbonate, diverse group of cnidarians, fish and invertebrate diversity is very high, high oxygen levels, excluded by high inputs of fresh water and nutrients. marine benthic zone consists of the neritic,abyssal, and pelagic zones Shallow in some areas, most receives little sunlight, various temperatures, various water pressures, soft sediments, oxygen is present, contains some reefs, can be dark, hot, and oxygen deficient in some areas. Terrestrial Biomes tropical forest desert savanna chaparral temperate grassland coniferous forest temperate broadleaf forest tundra Tropical Rain Forest- Rainfall constant, 200-400 cm annually, stratified, light competition is intense, layers include emergent trees, canopy trees, sub canopy trees, shrub and herb layers. Broadleaf evergreen trees are dominant, bromeliads and orchids cover trees, many animals including amphibians, birds, mammals, and arthropods. Tropical Dry Forest- Precipitation highly seasonal, 150-200cm annually, six to seven month dry season, warm year-round, stratified, fewer layers than in an tropical rain forest, trees drop their leaves during the dry season, thorny shrubs, succulents, diversityi in animals same as in tropical rain forest. Animal diversity is higher in tropical forests than in any other terrestrial biome. Precipitation low, temperature seasonal, dominated by low, widley scattered vegetation, succulents such as cacti, deeply rooted shrubs, and herbs. Plants adaptations include heat, water shortage, and reduced leaf surface area. Physical defenses common such as spines, and chemical defenses. Snakes and lizards, seed-eating rodents, many nocturnal. Seasonal rainfall, dry season can last eight to nine months, warm year-round, scattered trees wit thornes ad reduced leaf surface area, fires common, grasses and forbs grow rapidly, large herbivores mammals, herbivores insects dominating. Rainfall seasonal, rainy winters, long dry summers, annual precipitation 30-50 cm, fall, winter, and spring cool, shrubs and small trees, grasses and herbs, plant diversity high with drought and fire adaptations, browsers, small mammals, high diversity of amphibians, birds, and other reptiles. Precipitation is seasonal,dry winters and wet summers, periodic drought, winters are cold, summers are hot, dominant plants are grasses and forbs, grazing mammals such as bison and wild horses, burrowing mammals such as prairie dogs, soil great for farming. largest terrestrial biome on earth Precipitation around 30-70 cm annually and periodic drought are common, winters are cold, summers are long and can be hot, cone-bearing trees are common, the diversity is in the shrub and herb layers, migratory birds nest there and some are there year-round. Some mammals including moose, brown bear, and siberian tigers are diverse. Periodic outbreaks of insets that feed on the dominant trees can kill numbers of trees. Precipitation averages 70- over 200 cm annually, rain falls during all seasons, has many distinct layers, including a closed canopy, understory trees, a shrub layer, and a herbaceous stratum. Deciduous trees dominate, mammals hibernate in winter while bird species migrate. Animals make use of all the layers. Covers areas of the arctic, amounting to 20% of earth's land surface. Winters are long and cold, summers are short and cool, herbaceous vegetation is dominate, consisting of luchens, mosses, grasses, and forbs. Some dwarf shrubs and trees, permafrost is a permanent frozen layer that generally prevent water infiltration. Caribou and riendeer are migratory while large grazing ox are resident, predators including bears, wolves, and foxes, migratory birds. What is behavior? Everything an animal does and how it does it. What is the focus of: proximate? ultimate? Focus on the environmental aspects that trigger behavior as well as genetic physiological and anatomical mechanisms underlying the behavior. They address a evolutionary significance of a behavior. Vocabulary Ethology- the scientific study of how things behave, particularly in the natural environments.
Fixed action pattern- a sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and once initiated is usually carries to completion.
Sign stimulus- external sensory stimulus
Imprinting- a type of behavior that includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible.
Sensitive period- a limited phase in an animal’s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned.
Innate behavior- behavior that is developmentally fixed.
kinesis taxis simple decision in activity turning rate in response to a stimulus more or less automatic an oriented movement toward or away from some stimulus both decisions that effect the organsisms life How do migration and genetic control relate? Many scientists think that migration is genetically controlled, they have tested it by using blackcap birds and found that many of the birds in cages have migratory restlessness even though they don’t have to migrate. How do signals and communication relate? A signal is a behavior that causes change in another animal’s behavior, while the transmission of, reception of, and response to signals are animal communication which is an essential element of interactions between individuals. Some examples of animal signals and communications a signal between territorial fish is to erect their fins, which gives them a larger profile and is generally enough to drive off and intruding individual.
terrestrial mammals are nocturnal, which makes visual displays relatively ineffective, so they use sound.
birds use songs and bright colors to communicate.
Are mating and parental behavior genetically controlled? Thomas R. Insel a researcher at Emory University has researched the idea that a gene in the prairie vole’s brain is responsible for it mating and parental behavior. They found that when this gene is added to a laboratory mouse’s brain the mouse exhibits similar behavior. this shows that in some way or another mating and parental behavior is genetically controlled. Vocabulary Learning- the modification of behavior based on specific experiences
Habituation- is a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
Spatial learning- the modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment
Cognitive map- a code of the spatial relationships between objects in an animals surroundings
Associative learning- the ability of many animals to associate one feature of the environment with another
Classical conditioning- an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment
Operant conditioning- an animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior
What classic experiment did Tinbergen do and why was it important? Tinbergen watched a mother wasp and later when the wasp had left he moved the landmarks from around the underground nest to a few feet away, when the wasp came back the wasp went to the landmarks not to the actual nest. This proved that some organisms use landmarks to mark their nests. What does cognitive ethology study? It examines the connection between an animal's nervous system and its behavior. 2 examples of the relationship between behavioral traits and natural selection Migration in birds and how over many year the species have figured out where the best place to go is and where not to, and then passing it on through the proposed migratory gene.
Birds using the same song to mate and the bird just naturally knowing it.
How does the statement "there are risks and benefits to everything" relate to the optimal foraging theory? It relates by saying that the optimal foraging theory is basically a compromise and that in order to get food the organsims may have to go and face its predators. The most important factor in the evolution of the mating system, and it making sense The needs of the young, because in order for the reproducing to be successful the young as to survive and be able to carry on the species. What is agonistic behavior? A ritualized contest the determines which competitor gains access to a certain resource. Game theory and animal behavior relating? Game theory depends on the animals behavior and the communities behavior. Vocabulary Altruism- selflessness
Inclusive fitness- the total effect an individual had on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives.
Coefficient of relatedness- equals the probability that if two individuals share a common parent or ancestor, a particular gene present in one individual will also be present in the second individual.
Kin selection- the natural selection that enhances the reproductive success of relatives
Is reciprocal altruism common in animals? No, it's only really common in species with a social group like chimpanzees. It is not common in other animals because the animals are not likely to meet again. Social learning and culture relating Culture is a system of information transfer through the social learning or teaching that influences the behavior of individuals in a population. Vocabulary Population- is a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area
Density- is the number of individuals per unit area or volume
Dispersion- the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
Mark-recapture method- a sampling technique commonly used to estimate wildlife populations
Immigration- the influx of new individuals from other areas
Emigration- the movement of individuals out of a population
Territoriality- the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
The patterns of dispersion and the conclusion drawn from them. Clumped, uniform, and random, I can draw that the pattern of dispersion is depending on the species and on the environment. Vocabulary a.Demography- is the study of the vital statistics of population and how they change over time
b.Life tables- age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a population
c.Survivorship curves- a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each age
d.Reproductive table- an age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
e.Life history- the series of events from birth through reproduction and death
I – humans or other large mammals, because they don’t have a high mortality rate during the beginning of their life do to the care given by their mothers.
II – squirrels, because they have a pretty constant threat of mortality throughout their lives.
III – oysters, because the mother oyster has so many eggs that some of them with die do to predation so if they do make it past the larvae stage they then develop a hard shell and life a longer life.
semelparity iteroparity Semelparity is a “one-shot” pattern of reproduction like shown in the pacific salmon. Iteroparity is repeated reproduction like shown in some lizards. Semelparity is a good way for salmon to reproduce because they produce thousands of eggs when they reproduce while the lizard only produces a few large eggs. Iteroparity is perfect for the lizards but if the salmon did that they would be an overabundance of salmon and not enough food to support them. What is zero population growth? Zero population growth occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal. What is exponential population growth and what kind of graph would represent it? Exponential population growth is the geometric increase in population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment, a line graph with a sharp incline toward the end. The growth rate will slow as it approaches the maximum carrying capicity. Population growth rate is the greatest at the intermediate population sizes.
“K” is the maximum carrying capacity.
Maximum carrying capacity is the maximum population size that a particular environment can support
k-selection and r-selection
-K-selection is selection of life history traits that are sensitive to population density. Density-dependent
-R-selection is density-independent.
-K maximizes population
-R tends to maximize the rate of increase.
density-dependent different than density-independnet? density- Independent is a birth rate or death rate that doesn’t change with population density while density- dependent is when a death rate rises as the population density rises, or a birth rate falls with a rising density. a b c a- both the birth rate and the death rate change with population density.
b- birth rate change with the population density while death rate is constant.
c- death rate change with population density while birth rate is constant.
Density-dependent factors in population regulation 1. Competition for resources- competition for resources makes it harder for reproduction to occur and it can cause more deaths.
2. Territoriality- if a bird cannot find a place to nest they do not reproduce, this will affect the populations growth.
3. Health- if there is more unhealthy people than healthy the population will suffer when they die.
4. Predation- as the prey population increases predators who feed on that prey will consume more.
5. Toxic wastes- to much toxins will kill the population and have a negative impact.
6. Intrinsic factors- physilogical factors like stress can have an impact on population size even though all environmental factors are ideal.
What is population dynamics? Population dynamics is the study that focuses on the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in population size. Human population growth? The population is pretty constant but fluctuates, it also can drop if there is famine or a plague of some sort, but mostly it is constant it will rise when more people have babies like during the baby boom. What imformation does a age structure pyamid give you? They show the relative number of people in each age group. You can infer that in a country with a small base the country’s population is going to decrease while if the country has a large base the county’s population will most likely increase. Can ecological footprints be useful? It can show if the world will have enough resources for all the people and for the countries that use more resources that they provide for themselves. What is interspecific interactions? An organisms reaction with other species in the community. Interspecific competition and The Competitive Exclusion Principle relating? Interspecific competition is when different species compete for a particular resource and if there is competition between resources such as food, the competitive exclusion principle may occur. Which is the extinction of one of the species in that community that is competing for the food source. - ecological niche is the sum total of a species’ use of the abiotic and biotic resources in its environment.
- fundamental niche is the niche potentially occupied by that species
- realized niche is the niche it actually occupies in a particular environment
-resource partitioning is the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community
Contrast character displacement example The variation in beak size between different populations of the Galapagos finches geospiza fuliginosa and geospiza fortis. defense adaptations and examples a.Cryptic coloration- camouflage- canyon tree frog
b.Aposematic coloring- bright warning coloration- poison arrow frog
c.Batesian Mimicry- a harmless species mimics a harmful species- a) hawkmoth larva b) green parrot snake
d.Müllerian mimicry- two unpalatable species mimic each other- a) cuckoo bee b) yellow jacket
plant defense against herbivory? chemical toxins Contrast a.Endoparasites- parasites that live within the body of their host
b.Ectoparasites- parasites that feed on the external surface of their host
c.Parasitoids- lay eggs on or in their living hosts.
Definition of mutualism and examples Is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root nodules of legumes, and the digestion of sellulose by microorganisms. Definition and example of commensalism An interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms nor helps the other- cowbirds and cattle egrets feeding on the insects that are flushed out of the grass by grazing mammals, and the “hitchhiking” species, such as algae that grow on the shells of aquatic turtles. Is the evolution of Batesian mimicry an example of coevolution? No, because batesian mimicry is the adaptation of multiple species in the community rather than a coupled genetic change in just two interacting species. species diversity, species richness and relative abundance correctly in an example Imagine two small forest communities, each with 100 individuals distributed among four different tree species. The species richness is the same for both communities because they both contain four species, but the relative abundance is very different. You would easily notice the four different types of trees in the community, but without looking carefully, you might see only the abundant species. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? A food chain is the transfer of food energy up the trophic levels from its source in the primary producers (plants) through the primary consumers (herbivores) to the secondary and tertiary consumers (carnivores) and eventually to decomposers. While a food web is a summary of the trophic relationships of a community. Which provides a more “full” ecological picture and why? A food web because it is more detailed and includes what organisms eat what and the basic order is could go in with many different ways that it could go.
Why are food chains short? Energetic hypothesis suggests that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. Or dynamic stability hypothesis proposes that long food chains are less stable than short chains. Population fluctuations at lower trophic levels are magnified at higher levels, potentially causing the local extinction of top predators. How do you characterize the dominant species? The dominant species are those species in a community that are the most abundant of that collectively have the highest total mass of all the individuals in the population. How is this different from the keystone species? It is different because the keystone species ins not necessarily the most abundant they exert strong control in the community but not by numerical might but by their pivotal ecological roles, or niches. bottom-up versus top-down models The bottom-up model and the top-down model are the same in the fact that they both discuss the relationships between the organisms and the food chains. In a bottom-up model in order to change the top trophic levels you have to change the bottom ones first. While in a top-down model you can change the top trophic level and thus change to bottom trophic levels as well. Term disturbance and the intermediate disturbance hypothesis relationship? The intermediate disturbance hypothesis suggests that moderate levels of disturbance, or an event that changes a community, can create conditions that foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance. primary versus secondary succession Primary and secondary succession are alike in the fact that they both deal with the clearing by some form of disturbance and the regrowth. Primary succession is when the ecological succession of life is done on a virtually lifeless area, while secondary succession is when ecological succession of life is done on an area of land or sea that was on an existing community. What is evapotranspiration? the evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants What is the Island Equilibrium Model and how does it help us better understand ecological changes? It is a theory that states that the size and distance from mainland and island is can effect the immigration and extinction on the island. It helps us better understand ecological changes by allowing us to see what happens on secluded lands such as those in the middle of the ocean. What is the integrated hypothesis and how does it relate to the individualistic hypothesis? It describes a community as an assemblance of closely lined species, locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions that cause the community to function as an integrates unit. Evidence for the integrated view includes the observation that ertain species of plants are consistently found together as a group, which is what the individualistic hypothesis suggests. What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact. Why would we study energy flow in relation to the ecosystem? Because energy cannot be recycled and the human life revolves around ecosystems and the produces created in them. Detritus Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumer microorganisms and other detitivores Tertiary Consumers Why are detritivores essential to an ecosystem? Because they form an essential link between the primary producers and the consumers Vocabulary Gross primary production- the amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time.
Net primary production- is equal to the gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for respration.
Light and nutrient limitations impacting primary production Light limitations makes it harder fro photosynthesis to occur thus causing less vegetation, nutrient limitation can cause there to be not enough growth in phytoplankton populations which for the base of marine food webs. What is eutrophication and is it considered a “positive” for the a lake environment? Eutrophication is when phytoplankton in lakes is dominated by green algae and then dominated by cyanobacteria. It is considered to be not positive for lakes because it can cause the eventual loss of even the most tolerant fish. What impacts evapotranspiration? The amount of precipitation, and the amount of sunlight that drive evaporation and transpiration. What is secondary production? The amount of chemical energy in consumers’ foood that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period. Why is the energy transfer between trophic levels limited? Because the energy gets given off as heat throughout the ecosystem. production efficiency versus tropic efficiency Production efficiency is the fraction of energy stored in food that is not used in respiration, while trophic efficiency is the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next. What is the green world hypothesis? The green world hypothesis is the idea that terristrial herivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors, including predators, parasites, and disease. Nutrient Cycles Water cycle Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle What is the difference between nitrification, denitrification, ammonification and nitrogen fixation? - nitrification is when NH4+ is converted to NO3- by nitrifying bacteria.
- Dentrification is when under anaerobic conditions, denirtrifying bacteria use NO3- in their metabolism instead of O2, releasing N2.
- Ammonification decomposes organic nitrogen to NH4+
- Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of N2 by bacteria to forms that can be use to synthesize nitrogenous organic compounds.
What is acid rain and why is it a problem? Acid rain is when the precipitation that falls has an acidic pH. It causes problem when it falls by contaminating water, which kills the fish and it also can kill the plants and animals that use it. What is biological magnification and how does it relate to the health warnings given to pregnant women about the consumption of certain fish? Biological magnification is when toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of the food web. It related to the warnings given to humans because if the fish that the pregnant women consumes lived in an area that cause it to carry toxins the baby in the mother’s stomach will ingest the toxin, which can hurt the baby. What is conservation biology? It integrates ecolgy, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity at all levels. What is restoration ecology? It applies ecological principles in an effort to return degraded ecosystems to conditions as similar as possible to their natural, predegraded state. The three levels of Biodiversity 1. genetic diversity- comprises not only the individual genetic variation within a population, but also the genetic variation between populations that is often associated with adaptations to local conditions.
2. species diversity- the variety of species in an ecosystem or throughtout the entire biosphere.
3. ecosystem diversity- the network of community interactions among populations of different psecies within an ecosystem, the local extinction of one species can have a negative impact on the overall species richness of the community. Vocabulary endangered species- one that is "in danger of extinction throughout all of a significatn portion of its range".
threatened species- are those that are considered likely to become endangered in the forseeable future. What are ecosystem services? It encompasses all the processes through which natural ecosystems and the species they contain help sustain human life on earth. A few ecosystem services: purfication of air and water
reduction of the severity of droughts and floods
generation and preservation of fertile soils
detoxification and decomposition of wastes
pollination of crops and natural vegetation
dispersal of seeds
cycling of nutrients
control of many agricultural pests by natural enemies
protection of shorelines from erosion
protection from ultraviolet rays
moderation of weather extremes
provision of beauty and recreational opporunities The four major threats to Biodiversity - habitat destruction
- introduced species
- disruption of interaction networks What is the extinction vortex? It is a downward population spiral in which positive feedback loops of inbreeding and genetic drift cause a small population to shrink and, unless reversed, become extinct. What is minimum viable population? The minimal population size at which a species is able to sustain its numbers and survive. What is population viability analysis? Its objective is to reasonably predict a population's chances for survival. What is effective population size An estimate of the size of a population based on the numbers of females and males that successfully breed; generally smaller than the total population. What is movement corridor? A narrow strip of series of small clumps of quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches. Whats a Biodiversity hot spot? A relatively small area with an exceptional concentration of endemic species and a large number of endangered and threatened species. What's a zoned reserve? An extensive region of land that includes one or more areas undisturbed by humans surrounded by lands that have been changedby human activity and are used for economic gain. What is bioremediation? It is the use of living organsims to detoxify polluted ecosystems. What is biological augmentation? Uses organsims to add essential materials to a degreaded ecosystem. Resoration Ecology Worldwide Truckee River, Nevada Australia Kissimmee River, Florida Tropical dry forest,Costa Rica Rhine River,Europe Succulent Karoo, South Africa Coastal Japan What is sustainable development? It's the long-term prosperity of human societies and the ecosystems that support them. What does our biophilia enable us to do? It enables us to recognize the value of biodiversity for its own sake. We should be motivated to preserve biodiversity because we depend on it for food, medicine, building materials, fertile soil, flood control, habitable climate, drinkable water, and breathable air. Working hard to prevent the extinction of other organisms is the ethical thing to do as we are the most thoughtful species in the biosphere.