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How did WW2 influence the goals of motion picture industry?
Transcript of How did WW2 influence the goals of motion picture industry?
How did World War II Influence
the Goals of Motion Picture Industry?
The Motion Picture Industry was used as a tool to promote propaganda during WWII.
Burger Middle School Teacher Example
War Influences on Propaganda
"When it comes to propaganda, we suspect our enemies of it, but we never figured we were using propaganda. We felt like our country was too honest to use propaganda on us, and we honestly were not conscious that they were."- Katherine Phillips
Propaganda in the Entertainment Industry
"The easiest way to inject a propaganda idea into most people's minds is to let it go through the medium of an entertainment picture when they do not realize that they are being propagandized."- Elmer Davis, Director of the War Information, 1942
Office of War Information
This office was created on June 13, 1942 following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The goal was to persuade Americans to join the war effort through jobs that supported the war.
"Roma, Citta Aperta" Rome, Open City
Directed by Roberto Rossellini
Release Date: 1945
WWII Inquiry H.U.N.T. Project
Set in Nazi occupied Rome, most Romans could wander the streets without fear of the city being bombed or them being killed, but life for Romans was still difficult. The Nazi occupation set curfews, rations and the Nazi police were searching for those working in the resistance or those who are aiding resistance members. The resistance is made up of individuals who rise against all that the Nazi's and the Axis power stand for. An italian priest, Don Pietro, has a unique position in the war. He is often called upon by Nazi leaders for help and assistance, but is also sworn to secrecy under the catholic law and is often aiding members of the resistance. Don Pietro's position will lead to a great deal of drama as the story plot unfolds.
Relating it to WWII
This film was created in Italy by Roberto Rossellini when the economic and social structure of Italy was completely destroyed due to bombing during WWII. Rossellini did not have money to fund many of the filming, but was backed by the Italian Resistance as they felt this film would help capture the essence of the treatment of the Italian bystanders. Because of the low budget, the film quality is very authentic and realistic. Rossellini used actual bomb sites and destroyed buildings as the backdrop to his film. He used ordinary people and real locations. He shot the film in secrecy during years of the war and would later be considered a member of the Italian resistance.
Bibliography and Works Cited
Congress, L. (2007, January 1). Communication. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_home_communication_propaganda.htm
Dirks, T. (2015, January 1). Film History of the 1940s. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from http://www.filmsite.org/40sintro.html
Larson, C. (1948). The Domestic Motion Picture Work of the Office of War Information. Hollywood Quarterly, 3(4), 434-443.
Omeka. (2015, January 1). Hollywood Goes to War | Hollywood Goes to War : Office of War Information and Bureau of Motion Pictures. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from http://marb.kennesaw.edu/hollywoodandwar/exhibits/show/hollywoodgoestowar/censorship/owiand
Roma città aperta. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2015, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0038890/
Roma, citta aperta [Motion picture]. (1945). Italy: SBS.
Bureau of Motion Pictures
"At least twenty pictures in the last year [were] designed to drug the reason of the American people, set aflame their emotions, turn their hatred into a blaze, fill them with fear that Hitler will come over here and capture them."
Hollywood is "a raging volcano of war fever."
-Isolationist Senator Gerald Nye
During WWII the government reduced the availability of stock by 25% and also set a cap on the amount that could spent on movies at $5,000. Attendance however, did improve during the war and the industry made high profits.
People saved money on things like gas due to shortages and also were drawn to the theaters to view newsreels and hear stories from the war fronts.
The BMP taught Hollywood how to promote various types of messages and even reviewed those films to ensure the message they wanted was being shared. They also created a manual suggesting that prior to creating a film movie makers asked "'Will this picture help to win the war?'"
Movie: “With the Marines at Tarawa”
Content: Illustrated combat footage far more brutal than anything ordinary Americans had yet seen.
The OWI did not alone have the power to censor film it got the power it needed by working closely with the Office of Censorship which controlled where studios could ship and sell their movies abroad.
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