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Fetal Pig Dissection
Transcript of Fetal Pig Dissection
Name: Piggie Smalls
Approximate age: 105 days
- Made shallow incisions using scissors from the neck to the umbilical cord, and cut along the skin of his arms and legs.
- Used probes to separate connective tissues from muscles.
- After total removal of the skin, we made incisions through the muscle and rib-cage of the thoracic cavity and around his reproductive organs.
The integumentary system serves as a protective barrier from toxins, eliminates waste, retain body fluids and regulates body temperature.
To decipher sexes:
Males: Urogenital opening and scrotum
Females: Genital Papilla
The Skeletal System function is to support, protect, store calcium, blood cell production and enable movement.
Even though the fetal pig is an excellent model of the human body, the skeletal system cannot compared due to the maturity of an adult humans skeleton. Also, fetal pigs are four legged animals meanwhile humans are not so the skeletal structures are different.
Muscle is a contractile tissue composed of muscle fibers. Muscles contract and pull to cause movement in the body and also gives posture to the body.
A Lab manual by Roger E. Philips, Jr. and illustrated by Sandra Shomaker:
Dissection of the FETAL PIG
Why a pig?
A pig can be compared with a human because they are both mammals that share similar anatomy. Most major structures are the same or similar.
Lymphatic and Immune
External sex organs
The Digestive system role is to absorb nutrients from the small intestine by digesting and absorption.
Pulmonary veins & Arteries
The Endocrine system maintains the balance of hormone and blood levels in the body
The Nervous System sends signals and triggers responses using complex nerves and cells to and from the brain.
Sex Organs & opposite sex
Thymus & Thyroid
Sagittal cross-section of Brain
There are 3 types of muscle tissues
: Has striations and voluntary movement
: Has striations but involuntary movement
: No striations and involuntary movement
The cardiovascular system's function is circulating blood throughout the body, providing oxygen and nutrients.
The respiratory system moves air into and out of the body. It is also the site where oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream, and CO2 diffuses out.
Alexis. R & Mickey. L
Circulation carries deoxygenated blood
away from the heart and to the lungs where the blood becomes oxygenated
from the pulmonary capillaries.
If we start from the
superior vena cava
the blood would move to the
right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries,
pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, systemic arteries, syst
ic capillaries, systemic veins,
and back to the
superior vena cava
where the process repeats
List of functions
Masseter: A facial muscle that plays a major role in chewing or grinding down foods
Trapezius: A postural and active movement muscle. It can turn and tilt the neck and head. It elevates, depresses, rotates, and retracts the scapula, or shoulder blade.
Triceps brachii: A major extensor muscle in the upper arm which enables extension and retraction of the forearm.
latissimus dorsi: Is one of the largest muscles of the back. When flexed, the muscle extends, adducts or rotates the arm.
sternohyoid: A long thin muscle located along the entire length of the front of the neck. It's functions include depression of the hyoid bone, head and neck movement, and speech.
pectoralis major: Are used to control the movement of the arm. Pectorals also play a part in deep inhalation, pulling the ribcage to create room for the lung to expand.
pectoralis minor: A flat thin muscle found under the pectoralis major. It's primary actions include the stabalization, depression, abduction, upward tilt, and downward rotation of the scapula.
rectus abdominus: The muscles are used when a child is delivered, during bowel movements, and coughing. Strengthening the muscle improves performance in sports that require jumping.
Genital papilla- opening of reproductive system and releases urine (female)
Scrotum- External sac that holds testes
Urogenital- opening of reproductive system and releases urine (male)
Systemic circulation carries
blood away from the heart and to the body, and returns
back to the heart.
After leaving the aorta, blood travels to the systemic arteries, then to the
systemic capillaries where it is deoxygenated
, then to the systemic veins and back to the superior vena cava
is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues and transporting white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes
trachea: windpipe that provides air flow to and from the lungs for respiration
bronchi: main passageway into the lungs which evolve into alveoli which is the site of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
lungs: helps O2 enter to the blood stream when we breathe in and for the body to get rid of CO2 gas when we breathe out
diaphragm: serves as the main muscle in the breathing process
pulmonary veins: carries oxygenated blood to the left atrium
pulmonary arteries: carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to the lungs
heart: Pumps blood throughout the body from the circulatory system
aorta: It's the largest artery in the body. It carries blood from the heart. Many arteries come off the aorta to supply blood throughout the body
anterior vena cava: It returns deoxygenated blood from systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart
Hard palate- helps facilitate movement of food towards larynx.
Liver-processes nutrients absorbed by the small intestines
Gallbladder- Stores and concentrates bile that helps break down fats
Small Int.- Absorbs nutrients and minerals from foods.
Large Int.- absorbs water from indigestible food and transmits waste
Esophagus- carries food from mouth to stomach
Stomach- where enzymes break down food
Teeth- manipulates food mechanically
Tongue- vital for chewing and swallowing
Anus- where gastrointestinal tract ends and transmits waste
Epiglottis- seals off the windpipe while eating
Cerebrum-4 divided regions that control senses, thoughts and movement
Cerebellum- controls movement, balance, and, posture
spinal cord- connects peripheral nervous system and transmits nerve signals to the brain.
corpus callosum- millions of nerve fibers that connect the cerebral cortex
pineal body- produces melatoin and regulates reproductive hormones
thalamus- correlates the processes of sleep, consciousness, and sensory interpretation
hypothalamus- connects endocrine system to nervous system to control rate of production of hormones.
medulla- part of brain stem that's important for breathing, exhaling, reflexes and heart rate.
Thymus- where T-cells and T- Lymphocytes are developed
Thyroid- produces, stores, and releases hormones into bloodstream
Pancreas- excretes enzyme to break down food
Liver- breaks down excessive hormones to create a balance
Ovary- where estrogen and progesterone is made allowing puberty, pregnancy, and menstrual cycles
Testes-where testosterone is made inducing puberty and sperm
Adrenal- where adrenaline and corticosteroids are created
Pineal- produces melatonin to allow the body to sleep
Pituitary- produces hormones for vital body functions
Hypothalamus- connects endocrine system to nervous system to control production of hormones
function is to keep infectious microorganisms out to body and to fight any microorganism that do invade the body
: filters blood for the immune system
: are small masses of lymphatic tissue throughout the ileum that prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines
: produces hormones
Stretched small intestines
Lower Digestive System
After dissecting our beloved Piggie Smalls we've learned a lot about the anatomy of the human body. By observing the fetal pigs we were able to see how our body systems all work together in-order to live our daily lives. Even though we did have some eerie parts while dissecting Piggie Smalls he gave us a visual impacting how we see the Human Anatomy.
*Also used handouts provided during the semester*
The uro-genital system is responsible for reproduction and urinary excretion.
kidneys: filters blood and removes waste
ureters: tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
bladder: stores urine
urethra: carries urine from the bladder to the outside body
ovaries: produces eggs and hormones
uterine horns: allows sperm to ascend up the vaginal canal
uterine body: nurturing the fertilized ovum
vagina: used for sexual intercourse
penis: used for sexual intercourse
urogenital sinus: gives rise to the lower part of the bladder in both sexes
vas deferens: transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts
bulbourethral gland: adds fluid to the semen during ejaculation
spermatic cords: supports testes in the scrotum
epididymis: stores sperm and transports it from the testes
testes: where sperm and testosterone is produced
scrotum: climate control system for testes
urogenital opening: where body waste and fluid are expelled
(behind the bladder)
(follows along testes)
(since it was hard to tell from our piggie smalls, I used my brother's fetal pig's heart picture)
(any of the blue)
click for the diagrams
the bladder blocked off the vagina and urogenital sinus, check the diagram for more defined labeling
the bladder blocked off the bulbourethral and our pig is just really messy (no offence to piggie smalls), check the diagram for more defined labeling