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Transcript of Critical Thinking
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April 24, 2014
1. Define critical thinking
2. Short history of critical thinking
3. Elements of critical thinking
4. Why close reading to support the development of critical thinking
Critical thinking is the intellectually
gathered from, or generated by,
, as a
guide to belief and action
(Scriven & Paul 1987)
that increase the probability of a desirable outcome.
Solve problems, formulate inferences, calculate likelihoods,
& make decisions.
Use appropriately, without prompting, and usually with
-how good a decision is or how well a problem is solved.
Critical - Greek word "Kritike"
The art of judgement.
Habits of Mind
15th & 16th Centuries
European scholars began thinking critically about art, history, nature,
law, freedom and society
Sir Isaac Newton
Mathematics, gravity & optics
The mind when disciplined by reason is better able to support the social and political world.
Valued disciplined intellectual exchange.
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Set an agenda or purpose
Reflectively question beliefs & explanations
Closely examines reason & assumptions
Not to blindly believe people in authority
Clarity and logic
Systematic & Cross-Examined.
Do not always reject established beliefs, only those that lack reasoned foundations.
Understand deeper realities of life and think systematically.
Thinking should be comprehensive, well reasoned and responsive to objections.
The way we misuse our minds in seeking knowledge.
The Advantage of Learning
Modern science - to study the world empirically.
When people are left to their own devices they develop bad habits.
IDOLS of schools, market place, theater and TRIBE.
Sir Francis Bacon
Rules for the Direction of the Mind
Early modern epistemology
Developed Principle of Systematic Doubt
Thinking for clarity and precision
Two powers of the mind: the intellect and the will.
1596 - 1690
Critical mind to open platform to new learning
Sir Thomas Moore
critiquing social systems
Not egocentric views but gathering evidence and sound reasoning.
Wealth of Nations
Declarations of independence
Critiquing loyalty to the King
Critique of Pure Reason
1820 - 1903
1809 – 1882
Cultural & Biological Life
Vast amounts of information at our fingertips
Power and nature of critical thinking is more explicit formulation.
William Graham Sumner
Mind thinks sociocentrically & schools parallel this social indoctrination.
Contemporary critical thinking
How We Think.
Democracy and Education,
Inquiry, reflective thinking
Psychology – mind is easily deceived
Hard sciences – power of information, empirical studies
Domain specific inquiry
Power of critical thought & the use of tools for critical thought.
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly
and to make logical inferences from it: cite specific
textual evidence when writing or speaking to support
conclusions drawn from the text.
10. Read and comprehend complex literacy and informational
texts independently and proficiently.
evaluate own thought
Refine thought process
Thinking is comprehensive
Identify bias, prejudice & propaganda
Close Reading involves investigating a short piece of text multiple times over multiple lessons. Through test-based
questions, discussion, students are guided to deeply analyze and appreciate various aspects of the texts
, such as
and how its
meaning is shaped by context
: attention to form tone, imagery, and /or rhetorical device: the significance of word choice and syntax and the discovery of different levels of meanings as passages are read multiple times. (p.2)
(Brown & Kappas, 2012)
Salient Features of Close Reading Instruction