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Copy of Alexander pushkin
Transcript of Copy of Alexander pushkin
Who is Alexander Pushkin?
Alexander Pushkin was a Russian author, who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of Russian literature.
Pushkin was born into Russian nobility
Born: June 6, 1799, Moscow, Russia
Died: February 10, 1837, Saint Petersburg, Russia
The central representative of Romanticism in Russian literature
He founded a magazine called "the contemporary"
Life and career
He published his first poem at the age of 15
He was already a widely known writer by the time he finished school
His first long poem Ruslan and Lyudmila, was published in 1820. This poem caused a lot of controversy
He was a spokesperson for literary radicals, which made the government angry.
He was transfered from the capital to several different places. He then joined a group that sought to overthrow the ottoman empire in Greece.
Pushkin died in 1837 two days after a duel with his wife's alleged lover; he had been shot through his spleen
His funeral was only for close relatives and friends as the government feared it would turn into a political demonstration
A century later a town was renamed Pushkin in his honor
1820 – Ruslan and Lyudmila (Руслан и Людмила); English translation: Ruslan and Ludmila
1820–21 – Kavkazskiy plennik (Кавказский пленник); English translation: The Prisoner of the Caucasus
1821–22 – Bratya razboyniki (Братья разбойники); English translation: The Robber Brothers
1823 – Bakhchisaraysky fontan (Бахчисарайский фонтан); English translation: The Fountain of Bakhchisaray
1824 – Tsygany (Цыганы); English translation: The Gypsies
1825 – Graf Nulin (Граф Нулин); English translation: Count Nulin
1829 – Poltava (Полтава); English translation: Poltava
1830 – Domik v Kolomne (Домик в Коломне); English translation: The Little House in Kolomna
1833 – Andjelo (Анджело); English translation: Angelo
1833 – Medny vsadnik (Медный всадник); English translation: The Bronze Horseman
1823–31 – Yevgeny Onegin (Евгений Онегин); English translation: Eugene Onegin
1834 – Pikovaya dama (Пиковая дама); English translation: The Queen of Spades, short story
1834 – Kirdzhali (Кирджали); English translation: Kirdzhali, short story
1834 – Istoriya Pugacheva (История Пугачева); English translation: A History of Pugachev, study of the Pugachev's Rebellion
1836 – Kapitanskaya dochka (Капитанская дочка); English translation: The Captain's Daughter, novel
1837 – Istoriya sela Goryuhina (История села Горюхина); English translation: The Story of the Village of Goryukhino, unfinished short story
1841 – Dubrovsky (Дубровский); English translation: Dubrovsky, unfinished novel
Reason of death
In 1837, falling into greater and greater debt amidst rumors that his wife had started conducting a scandalous affair, Pushkin challenged her alleged lover, his brother in-law Georges d'Anthès, to a duel which left both men injured, Pushkin mortally. He died two days later. His last home is a museum now.
The government feared a political demonstration at his funeral, which it moved to a smaller location and made open only to close relatives and friends. His body was spirited away secretly at midnight and buried on his mother's estate.
In 1823 Pushkin again went against the government and was exiled once again.
In 1825 he was allowed to plead his case to Tsar Nicholas I so he could be released.
His release was allowed, but he was under strict government control. He was not allowed to travel or publish on his own free will.
In the same year Pushkin wrote his most famous poem titled Boris Godunov, but he was not allowed to publish it until five years later
He returned to Moscow in December 1830, but quarrels with his future mother-in-law continued to delay the wedding, as did, in January 1831, the grievous news of the death of Pushkin’s dear friend Delvig. Many noticed the poet’s grief: one friend wrote: “Soon Pushkin is marrying Miss Goncharova, entre nous, a soulless beauty. It seems to me by now he’d be glad to cancel the engagement”. Just a week before his wedding, Pushkin wrote a friend:
"I’m married. Well—almost. I’ve already pondered all that might tell me in favor of bachelor life and against marriage.
I’ve cold-bloodedly weighed the gains and losses in the estate I am choosing. My youth has passed noisily and
fruitlessly. Hitherto I have not lived as most people do, and I was not happy. Happiness lurks only on beaten paths. I’m over thirty. Most people usually marry at 30; I’m acting like most people, and probably won’t have grounds to regret. I am marrying without ecstasy or boyish enchantment; I see the future not all rosily, but in all its naked truth. Griefs will not surprise me; they are part of my domestic calculations. Any joys, though, will be completely unexpected. "
Pushkin is considered by many to be the central representative of Romanticism in Russian literature, however, he can't be labelled unequivocally as a Romantic. Russian critics have traditionally argued that his works represent a path from neo-Classicism through Romanticism to Realism. An alternative assessment suggests that "he had an ability to entertain contrarities, which may seem Romantic in origin, but are ultimately subversive of all fixed points of view, all single outlooks, including the Romantic" and that "he is simultaneously Romantic and not Romantic"