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Everything is connected - exploring diversity, innovation, leadership
Transcript of Everything is connected - exploring diversity, innovation, leadership
Everything is connected...
A look shared by two people,
each wishing that the other would initiate something
that they both desire,
but which neither
wants to begin.
The fear of diminishing
as one ages
The feeling of anticipation
that leads you to keep looking outside to see if anyone is coming
1. The state or quality of being different or varied
2. A point of difference
3. (Logic) The relation that holds between two entities
when and only when they are not identical
Collins English Dictionary
"The Extraverted Intuition type has the ability to make
They can take two
seemingly unrelated topics
bring them together
This can also cause them to have an
off-beat sense of humor
E N F P
"If they've found a cause that sparks their imagination,
ENFPs will bring an energy that oftentimes
thrusts them into the
held up by their peers as a leader and a guru - but this isn't
always where independence-loving ENFPs want to be."
Diversity = the MIX
Leadership = making the MIX work
Creative abrasion & leadership:
making the MIX work
(c) Kirby Ferguson: Embrace the remix, TED talk, June 2012
(c) Kirby Ferguson - everything is a remix, 2010
at the boundaries between mindsets,
not within the provincial territory
of one's knowledge or skills base
Recognising good ideas
Kodak - Electronic still camera
Patent US 4131919 A
470 BC - 399 BC
Hard to reconcile "
" & "
better at recognizing
Triumph of the Nerds - PBS - 1996
Everything is a
Image 14829462 (Lightbulbs) copyright: Galina Peshkova
Image 12783194 (spices) copyright Andrii: Gorulko
Image 19451381 (White triangles) copyright: Andrew Murskiy
Image 12878824 (Museum triangles) copyright: Enki
Image 24753514 (white triangle) copyright: Maksim Pauliukevich
1. The fact or
quality of being diverse or different
2. A point or respect in which things differ
The American Heritage Dictionary
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
1. The condition of having or being composed of differing elements
2. An instance of being composed of differing elements or qualities
Everything is connected...
Zeger Van Hese
Studies on the link between diversity and innovation
* Nancy J. Adler, p. 140, 2008, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior
* Scott Page, 2007, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies",
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 140
* Andres Tapia, 2009, The Inclusion Paradox: The Obama Era and the Transformation of Global Diversity
* Corinne Post, Emilio De Lia, November 2009, Capitalizing on thought diversity for innovation: team dynamics can affect innovation
both positively and negatively. Here's how to accentuate the positive, Research-Technology Management
* Frank De Wit and Lindred Greer, 2008, The Black-Box Deciphered: A Meta-Analysis Of Team Diversity, Conflict, And Team Performance,
Academy of Management Proceeding
* Floor Rink and Naomi Ellemers, 2010, Benefiting from deep-level diversity: How congruence between knowledge and decision rules
improves team decision making and team perceptions, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations Vol. 13 Issue 3, May 2010
* Anita Williams Woolley, Christopher F. Chabris, Alexander Pentland, Nada Hashmi, and Thomas W. Malone, 2010,
Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups, Science, September 30, 2010
* Nigel Bassett-Jones, Creativity and Innovation Management, 2005, The Paradox of Diversity Management, Creativity and Innovation.
Creativity and Innovation Management, June 2005, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 105–204
* Northcraft, Neale, Kramer, 1996, Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workforce, American Psychological Association, 1996
* Carol Hymowitz, 2005, The New Diversity, The Wall Street Journal, November 2005
* Marie-Élène Roberge and Rolf van Dick, 2010, Recognizing the benefits of diversity: When and how does diversity increase group performance?,
Human Resource Management Review, vol. 20, no 4 (December 2010): p. 295-308
* Ricarda Bouncken and Viviane A. Winkler, 2010, National and cultural diversity in transnational innovation teams,
Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, vol. 22, no. 2 (February 2010): p. 133-151.
* Cox, T,. & Blake, S., 1991, Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organisational competitiveness. Academy of management executive, 5(3): 45-56.
* Isaksen, S.G., & Lauer, K.J. (2002), The climate for creativity and change in teams. Creativity and innovation management, 11: 74–86.
* Laroche, L., & Rutherford, D. (2006), Recruiting, retaining and promoting culturally different employees. Butterworth-Heinemann.
* Tacheva, S., (2007), Top management team diversity: A multilevel exploration ofantecedents and consequences. University of St Gallen,
business dissertations p143. Dissertation no 3316 (Gutenberg).
* Watson, B., Spoonley, P., & Fitzgerald, E. (2009), Managing diversity: A twenty-first century agenda. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations 34(2):61-76.
* Yang, Y. (2005), Developing cultural diversity advantage: The impact of diversity management structures.
Academy of management annual meeting proceedings; pH1-H6, 6p
"More than just sociable people-pleasers though,
ENFPs are shaped by their
allowing them to
read between the lines
curiosity and energy
"They tend to see life as a
big, complex puzzle
everything is connected
prism of emotion, compassion and mysticism
and are always looking for a
your control system must be at least as complicated
as the system you are controlling
"only variation can force variation down"
- Ashby's notebooks, 1953
Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety" (1956)
“The viable system model - a briefing about organisational structure” - Raul Espejo, 2003
Designing variety in
“The viable system model - a briefing about organisational structure”
- Raul Espejo, 2003
Hiring variety in
Obstacles to team diversity
Diversity of ideas
hire a broad range of cultural, educational
and experiential backgrounds
--> diversity is a
critical asset in testing
"Where observation is concerned, chance favors only the prepared mind"
(Louis Pasteur, 1854)
Randomness & serendipity
randomness enables variety
Finding something valuable when looking for something else,
thanks to an observant mind
exploratory testing dice
adding more variety increases the probability of serendipity
Diversity of mindset
“We must struggle to develop a suspicious nature
as well as a lively imagination
“Computer programming fundamentals”, Weinberg & Leeds, 1961
"Whenever I suggest stepping back, easing up, laughing a little at ourselves, and going outside our own field
, somebody objects, saying: "But software is different. We have to work harder, concentrate more
, because nothing is as complex as software." Well, of course software is different and more complex than anything people have ever before attempted to engineer. But that's why we have to loosen our structures, not tighten them. That's why we must learn from any place we can, any way we can"
"Overstructured Management Of Software Engineering”, Jerry Weinberg, 1982
"It's better to do more different kinds of testing
to a pretty good level, than to do one or two kinds
of testing perfectly"
"Maximizing diversity in all dimensions of your testing will let you find more problems and uncover more risks."
Are you a creative person?
* Jolt your routine
* Ask questions - Why? Why Not? What If?
* How would <...> view your problem?
* copy creative behavior
creative muscles can be developed
"Innovation is the ability
to convert ideas into invoices"
(c) Jessica Hagy - This is indexed
The diversity paradox
The person who says it cannot be done,
should not interrupt the person doing it
Diversity -> innovation?
Islamic golden age
tolerance of diversity
Where is the data?
relative performance on creative tasks
impression of Baghdad around 762 AD
mixing of ideas
creating an environment
in which people become
to do their
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 1948, Citadelle -
"If you want to build a ship,
don't drum up people to collect wood,
and don't assign them tasks and work,
but rather teach them to long
for the endless immensity of the sea"
* Select people because of differences,
not in spite of them
* Encourage people to respect
thinking styles of other team members
* Thin line between
productive / destructive conflict
* Vision and courage to see past
discomfort of temporary conflict
* Right balance between
& “Creative Abrasion”
making the mix work
(c) Gerald Hirshberg
creating the mix
what is leadership anyway?
all team members will lack some skills,
but team as a whole will have them all
broader range of problems found
"productive conflict" that unleashes the power of diversity
"disagreeing with the aim of moving forward"
"Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation" (1998)
(c) Jean Soutif - Science Photo Library
Cfr Ashby's Law: "only variety can destroy variety"
(ENFP / ENTP)
The Office US - Season 1, Episode 2 - "Diversity Day" (2005)
Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy (2004)
Zeger "tsundoku" Van Hese
To test effectively, we need to be able to switch between creative and critical thinking
Managing our focus is an important testing skill