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Headlines of the 1930s
Transcript of Headlines of the 1930s
is completed Assassination attempt on Franklin D. Roosevelt Kristallnacht of the Holocaust A national anthem is a patriotic song that honors the history, customs, and struggles of a country. Our National Anthem is called the Star Spangled Banner. The lyrics were written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812. He wrote the words in response to seeing the bombing of American forces at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. The Star Spangled Banner was adopted in 1916 as the American National Anthem by an executive order from President Woodrow Wilson. Also, in 1934, it was adopted by a congressional resolution, which was signed by President Herbert Hoover. On October 17, 1931, the famous criminal, Al Capone was imprisoned for tax evasion and was sentenced for 11 years of jail. He began serving his time at the U.S. Penitentiary in Atlanta, but between charges, he was transferred to the prison at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. He got out early in 1939 for good behavior, after spending his final year of prison in a hospital, suffering from syphilis. Plagued by health problems for the rest of his life, Capone died in 1947 at age 48 at his home in Palm Island, Florida. The Empire State building was completed in 1931 by the Starrett Bros. & Eken. It is located at 350 Fifth Avenue in New York City. The total height of the building, including the lightning rod, is 1,454 feet. The building is mostly filled with rentable space for businesses. No one lives there. It is also used as a tourist attraction and offers views from the 102nd floor, which is the top of the building. The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world from 1931 to 1972. No other building has held the record for such a long period of time since the Strasbourg Cathedral in 1874. In 1928, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the first person to fly over both the Atlantic and Pacific. In 1937, she mysteriously disappeared while trying to circle the globe from the equator. Since then, several theories have formed regarding Earhart's last days, many of which have been connected to various artifacts that have been found on Pacific islands. She was legally declared dead in 1939. On February 15, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had just given a speech in Miami, Florida when five shots rang out. Although none of the shots hit FDR, Chicago's Mayor Anton Cermak was hit in the stomach and four others received minor injuries. After the mayor died of his wounds 19 days after the shooting, Giuseppe Zangara, the murderer, was charged with first-degree murder. He was then sentenced to death, and on March 20, 1933, Zangara died in the electric chair. On November 9, 1938, an event occurred to Jews called "Kristallnacht." It is a German word that consists of two parts: "Kristall" translates to "crystal" and refers to the look of broken glass and "Nacht" means "night." The accepted English translation is the "Night of Broken Glass." Synagogues were ravaged and then burned. Jewish shop windows were broken. Jews were beaten, raped, arrested, and murdered. Throughout Germany and Austria, the massacre rampaged. Ninety-one Jews were murdered while 30,000 Jews were arrested and sent to camps. Pluto was discovered on February 18, 1930. After its discovery, some astronomers questioned whether Pluto had a enough mass to affect the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. In 1978, James Christy and Robert Harrington discovered Pluto's first moon, Charon. Scientists thought that Pluto and Charon formed a double-planet system. In May 2005, the International Astronomical Union discovered Pluto's 2 other moons, Nix and Hydra. In August 2006, however, the International Astronomical Union announced that Pluto would no longer be considered a planet, due to new rules that said planets must "clear the neighborhood around its orbit." Since Pluto's rectangular orbit overlaps that of Neptune, it was disqualified. World War II begins On September 1, 1939, Adolf Hitler invaded Poland that marked the beginning of World War II. Nazi Germany's war with Poland was an uneven contest. The president throughout the war was Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Nazis murdered approximately 12 million people, nearly 6 million of those being Jews killed in the Holocaust. The war ended on September 2, 1945, when Japan signed a surrender agreement on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The interior of the Fasanenstrasse Synagogue in Berlin after Kristallnacht