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Turkey

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Max Ross

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Turkey

Anatolia linking Asia and Europe, has a long and distinguished record as a centre of civiliztion- from one of the world's first towns (Catal Huyuk), through the successive periods of Hittites and Trojans, Ionians, and Lydians, Romans and Byzantines. But the region acquires its present identity and name, as Turkey, more recently - with the arrival of Turkish tribes to confront the Byzantine empire in the 11th century AD. In 1064 the Seljuk Turks, under their sultan Alp Arslan, invade Armenia. Throughout the 12th and 13th century Anatolia is in turmoil. Turkish tribes fight among themselves. The Byzantines try to recover their land. Crusaders, passing through and from 1204 occupying Constantinople, complicate the picture. But the new and overriding feature is that Anatolia is now largely occupied by Turks. This fact enters the languages of the period. In addition to its many other names, the region begins to be referred to as Turkey - the land of the Turks.















Turkey
By Max, Ryley, and Sean
History
Anatolia
The Fall of Constantinople



A month after his twenty-first birthday, in April 1453, Mehmed II applies to Constantinople the stranglehold which has been a tacit threat for nearly a century, ever since the Ottoman capture of Adrianople (Edirne in its Turkish name) in 1362. He initiates a tight blockade of the city by both sea and land. By dawn the Turks are in the city. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI, has died in the fighting. The name is changed to Istanbul.





Conflicts
over the course of centuries, Turkey's main enemy was undoubtedly Russia. The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of conflicts in European history. With result, the wars end up leading to the fall of the ottoman empire
POLITICS
Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial role. The president is elected for a five-year term by direct elections and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is first president elected by direct voting. The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament. The prime minister is Ahmet Davutoğlu who is also the leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) since 27 August 2014.
Government Structure
Military
The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions. The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President and is responsible to the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location. Turkey does not recognize conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.
Foreign Relations
Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945), the OECD (1961), the OIC (1969), the OSCE (1973), the ECO (1985), the BSEC (1992), the D-8 (1997) and the G-20 major economies (1999). Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009-2010. In September 2013, Turkey became a member of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD). Turkey is almost a member of the European Union.
Geography
Turkey is a transcontinental[143] Eurasian country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97% of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3% of the country.The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.
Biodiversity
Turkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for mankind still grow in Turkey. The diversity of Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of its flora. The number of animal species throughout Europe as a whole is about 60,000; in Turkey there are over 80,000 (over 100,000 counting subspecies)
Climate
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.
Office Spaces
Levent No 193 Binasi, Buyukdere cad. No 193 K.2
The business centre in Levent is located in the famous No 193 building, which the heart of the prime business district of Istanbul. This prestigious district is surrounded by the finest shopping malls, luxury residence and business towers, a variety of restaurants, gyms and leisure facilities as well as a number of business class & luxury hotels. No 193 is a AAA-grade building, within comfortable, safe walking distance of all of the surrounding facilities. It is 35-45 minutes drive to Ataturk International Airport. The business centre is located on the 2nd floor brings to the building first class ready-to-use offices, high-speed secure internet access, fully furnished and equipped meeting and interview rooms, expertly supported by a multilingual team of on-site professionals. The space is worth 976 dollars (CAD)
1.Levent Plaza, Buyukdere Av. Ni: 173/A Floor 7, Levent
The 1 Levent Plaza business centre occupies an elegant, imposing 14-floor modern tower on the European side of Istanbul, situated among consulates and multinationals. Located in the district are the headquarters of many Turkish banks, investment companies and other businesses and local bases of global giants. Neighbours include organisations specialising in a wide range of sectors such as finance, law, pharmaceuticals, publishing, recruitment and training. Istanbul is a maritime hub, making it a great location for companies involved in import/export as it operates a thriving container port connected to the railway network. Bulk carriers of iron ore, oil, grain, liquid natural gas and coal are exported from here, along with food and drink, textiles, rubber, chemicals, electronics, glass, machinery, automobiles and trucks. The business centre is close to the MetroCity, Kanyon retail centre, and Istanbul Atatürk Airport, 20km west of the city, is easily accessed by taxi or express bus. 837 (CAD) dollars per month is the rent fee.
EGS Business Park , B1 Blok No: 1.57 Yesilkoy

Prestigious address and buildings. Important and advantageous locations.
The staff are all ready office services without charge.
Yatırımsız, luxury ready-to fully-equipped offices to work immediately.
Electricity, heating, cooling, internet, parking, security, do not go to.
The legal address of the company’s possession.
Modern software, mail, courier, telephone, fax tracking.
Financial advisor, auditor, lawyer, technical staff side.
Duration of the contract, flexible office and meeting rooms are paid to use it.
Economy
Summary
The International Monetary Fund describes the economy of Turkey as an emerging market
Political scientists refer to Turkey as a newly industrialized country
According to the CIA Factbook, Turkey is a developed country
Religion
Turkey's #1 religion is Islam, with over 98% of the population being registered Muslim.
Judaism, Christianity, and non-believers make up less than 2% of the population.
Although having a high Muslim population, Turkey is still considered a secular country with no official religion.
All public schools, from elementary through high school attend mandatory religion classes, which gear their focus towards Islam.
Cuisine
Turkish cuisine is considered a refinement of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern foods.
Common Turkish foods: Kebabs, Shawarma, Fish, Rice, eggplant.
Turks do not eat out often and greatly prefer homemade food.
Meals typically consist of some form of soup, fried or boiled vegetables, Rice, and a form of meat.
Olive oil is a Turkish staple and is used whenever it can be.
Yogurt usually accompanies most Turkish meals, especially when meat is included.
Sports
The most popular sport in Turkey is Association Football.(Soccer)
Turkey won the Bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup.
Currency
Basketball and Volleyball are also popular in Turkey.
Turkey's national Basketball and Volleyball teams are fairly successful, often grasping bronze and silver but unfortunately no gold.
The currency in Turkey is the lira
The Lira is subdivided into 100 kurus
Turkey's national sport is Oil wrestling. This consists of lubricating your body with oil or grease and wrestling your opponent.
One Canadian Dollar = 1.95 Turkish Lira
The Lira is ranked 16th among the world's most traded currencies
The annual Kirkpinar Oil Wrestling tournament has taken place in Turkey as far back as 1362.
Notable Exports
Media
- Gold (8.2%)
- Cars (4.0%)
- Refined petroleum (3.4%)
- Raw iron bars (3.2%)
- Vehicle parts (2.5%)
Turkey contains a vibrant media industry with hundreds of TV channels, radio shows, multiple national newspapers, and magazines.
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, uranium, antimony, mercury, barite, borate, celestine (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower, and geothermal power
Natural Resources
Imports
The radio and television council oversees what is broadcasting throughout the media. Turkey has common networks with North America: ex: StarTV, ShowTV, ATV.
47% of Turks actively use the internet, this is significantly lower than Canada which sits at 85%
Zaman is a leading newspaper in Turkey, it can be compared to NY times.
Refined Petroleum (8.0%)
Scrap Iron (4.3%)
Gold (3.9%)
Cars (3.6%)
Petroleum gas (2.7%)
Turkish television Drama's are becoming increasingly popular within Turkey and around the world.
Tourism
Summary
Turkey is a popular destination for culture, spa, and health care tourism, with an average of 31 million foreign tourists per year
Ranked the sixth most popular tourist destination in the world
Istanbul
Istanbul is one of the most important tourism spots not only in Turkey but also in the world. There are thousands of hotels and other tourist-oriented industries in the city, catering to both vacationers and visiting professionals.
Istanbul
A number of major attractions are derived from their historical status as capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. These include the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the "Blue Mosque"), the Hagia Sophia, the Topkapı Palace, the Basilica Cistern, the Dolmabahçe Palace, the Galata Tower, the Grand Bazaar, the Spice Bazaar, and the Pera Palace Hotel.
Other Tourism
- Most beach resorts are located along the southwestern and southern coast, called the Turkish Riviera
- Antalya is also accepted as the tourism capital of Turkey
- Major resort towns include Bodrum, Fethiye, Marmaris, Kuşadası, Çeşme, Didim and Alanya.
Arts and Culture
Education
Education System
- Turkish education system is under the supervision and control of the state, namely the Ministry of National Education.
- According to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, everyone has the right to receive education.
- Education is compulsory from ages 6 to 14 and free in state schools.
- The country's primary schools currently have a 98 percent participation rate.
- The academic year in Turkish education institutions generally begins in the mid-September or early October and continues to May or early June. There is also a two-week winter break in February.
Stages of Education System
Pre-School Education: Optional kindergarten education, up to 6 years of age.
Primary Education: Compulsory and free basic education for eight years (5 years elementary + 3 years secondary), 6-14 years of age.
Secondary Education: 4 years of High School (Lise), or Vocational High School education, 15-17/18 years of age. Some schools might have an additional year of language study. High schools are mostly owned by the government and provide free education.

Higher Education: 4 years of university, or two at Higher Vocational Schools
Types of High Schools
Public High Schools - Any student who successfully completes 8 years of basic education can go onto these schools. Graduates of public high schools, if successful in the nationwide University Entrance Examination (ÖSS), can go onto higher education institutions.
Vocational High School - Some of these schools may take an additional year to complete. Graduates can automatically go on to higher vocational schools.
Anatolian High School - One year of English, followed by three years of regular education, with extra emphasis on English
Super High School - One extra year of English study
Science High Schools - Regular public high school for students who wish to have a future in the sciences
Higher Education
State Universities
Higher Vocational Schools
Private or Foundation Schools
Architecture
Poetry is the most dominant form of literature in Turkey
The music of Turkey combines diverse elements of Folk, Mediterranean, and Arabic styles of music
1920s - 1930s: First national architectural movement
Turkey has a fairly large film industry, even exporting some films to America.
Led by Turkish architects Vedat Tek and Mimar Kemaleddin, followers of the movement wanted to create a new and "national" architecture, which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture
Turkish Art and culture is heavily influenced by surrounding countries
Turkey still receives North American propaganda: Music, Movies, Art.
1950's and Westernization
In the 50s, Turkey's quest for modernist architecture was in line with the International Style and Rationalism. However, the development of the Turkish economy was an important factor as well. Even though Turkish architects were able to follow up on the modern design of important architects of the time, they were constrained by the lack of technological infrastructure or insufficient financial resources.
Popular Architecture in Turkey
Blue Mosque
Hagia Sophia
Topkapi Palace
Side
Kayakoy
Introductory
officially the Republic of Turkey is a contiguous transcontinental parliamentary republic largely located in Western Asia with the portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.
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