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Theoretical Perspectives

Activity 6: An Overview of Theoretical Perspectives (Thinking/Inquiry)

Titi Odunlami

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Theoretical Perspectives

Theoretical Perspectives Functionalism Systems Theory Symbolic Interactionism Social Exchange Theory Developmental Theories Conflict Theories Feminist Theory Includes Individuals interpret their experiences of self and others to determine the benefits and costs. Disciplines Micro Study Macro Study Macro and Micro Study The impact of sex and gender on behaviour of individuals and to consider issues of human behaviour from the specific point of view of women
Explain human inequalities between men and women from a female perspective -Power holds a society together
-Conflict exists between individuals because of inequalities
Groups compete with each other to meet their needs
-Society is divided according to their power Disciplines Similar, but Feminism was developed to separate sex and gender from class. Argue that change is required so that the needs of all people are met -As individuals progress through life, they face role expectations that challenge them to develop (Developmental Tasks)
-Differences in behaviour can reflect factors that are typical only of those born in the same period of time. Disciplines - Individuals act to maximize the benefits and minimize costs to themselves
They interpret their experiences in terms of costs vs. benefits
-Relationships are stable when the benefits that each person receives balance the costs of the relationships Disciplines -Individuals choose how they will act based on their perceptions of themselves and others
-Individuals define and interpret their experiences and give meaning to them
-Attempts to understand the point of view of the actor to explain the action
-Emphasizes mental processes of perception and interpretation in determining the behaviour of individuals Disciplines -Basic principal: Feedback
Family members inform each other how to interact to maintain stability within the family
-A larger family system contains subsystems (father-child, mother-father)
-Develop strategies for achieving goals and functions of individuals and of the family. Disciplines -All parts of a system fulfill a necessary, hidden function for the system as a whole, or its survival
-Assumes societies are stable when structures function to benefit society
- Functionalists examine the roles that individuals play within an institution, like a family and make observations about role behaviour and the rates at which they occur Disciplines Main Concepts Main Concepts *Examining the roles individuals play to contribute to the bigger picture Terms Status - a specific position within a social group
Role - the set of behaviours an individual is expected to demonstrate within a status
Norm - most prevalent behaviours in that role *Attempts to explain how groups of individuals interact as a system and influence each other
*They maintain a stable size because members can only be added by birth, adoption or marriage, and can only leave by death Main Concepts Main Concepts *Communication requires common language and use of shared symbols Terms “Me” - objective qualities (tall, male, student)
“I” - subjective self (good student, shy, lonely)
Role taking - being able to anticipate how other’s will respond Explains how individuals make decisions to form and maintain relationships that may be seen as unacceptable to others Main Concepts *At each stage there are developmental prerequisites
One must complete on developmental task to move onto the next Terms Cohorts - a group of individuals in which a male and female live together as husband and wife without legally marrying (common law marriage)
Normative Events - the predictable events in life that require a developmental change in behaviour Main Concepts Describes the relationship of men and women within a family as one of exploitation and oppression, and is used for analyzing power and authority within the family Terms Bourgeoisie - Karl Marx referred to those who controlled the means of production, the wealthy owners of business and factories as Bourgeoisie.
Proletariat – (controlled by the bourgeoisie) the livelihood of the masses of working people according to Karl Marx Androcentricity → bias that assumes male experience is human experience, and therefore also applies to women
Double Standards → biases that apply different standards for evaluating the behaviour of men and women Terms
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