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Cheyenne Smith

on 2 August 2013

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Transcript of Personality

Freud cont. Consciousness
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Theories of Personality Growth and Development
Latency stage
-from 6 years to puberty. The period that comes after the intense phallic stage, it is basically a tranquil stage
Genital stage
- from puberty to adulthood. Takes place in penis in boys and vagina in women. Pleasure from seeking seual interests in sexual relationships.
Subjective Values
The worth you place on desired outcomes. For example a dedicated student will place high subjective value on getting good grades.
Cheyenne Smith #30
Betty Ogba #31
Hannah Zamora #32
Sigmund Freud
(Psychoanalytic Theory)
-We are born with a sexual instinct that's sole purpose is preservation of species.
Four Major Points
-Structure of Personality
- Defense Mechanism
-Stages of psycho-sexual development
We will be discussing and analyzing theories of personality and development through the lense of several theorists over time.
We will also be covering:
-Psychoanalytic Theory
-The Trait Perspective of Personality Development
-The Social Cognitive Perspective
-Humanistic Perspective
The Conscious
corresponds to our present awareness, what we are thinking or feeling at any given moment.
The Preconscious
pertains to the information we have accumulated from prior events and experiences.
The Unconscious
contains primitive sexual and aggressive impulses as well as memories of troubling emotional experiences and unacceptable sexual or aggressive desires.
Things stored in your unconscious are not easily
Prevent the anxiety that would be experienced if memories in the unconscious were easily recalled.
- expulsion from unacceptable ideas and motive. Example: Unaware of true hateful feelings (because unconscious is difficult to recall)
refusal to recognize threatening impulses and desires. Example: Someone almost drowns someone in a pool but says its "no big deal"
Self justification for actions. Example: Keeps smoking because "lung cancer does not run in her family"
Oral stage
- from birth to 18 months. Sexual pleasure spans from sucking.biting, and mouthing. In adults alcohol and smoking use a dependence on nail biting.
Anal stage
- from 18 months to 3 years. Sexual pleasure spans from retention and release of bodily waste. There is a conflict between child and parent around the issue of toilet training.
Phallic stage
- from 3 to 6 years. Sexual pleasure is derived from the penis in boys and the clitoris in girls. The core conflict is the Oepedipus complex which involved with the development of desires for the opposite sex.
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Carl Jung
He believed that people have both
personal unconscious
which is

repressed memories and impulses

and the
collective unconscious
which is
place where stored ideas and images in the unconscious mind are passed down genetically through generations.
He thought that the collective unconscious contains primitive images called
which reflect universal human experience such as an all-powerful God and a nurturing mother figure. He says archetypes influence our dreams, thoughts and emotions.
Alfred Alder
-the creative self-
the part of personality that is aware of itself and organizes goal seeking behavior. This part of ourselves strives to overcome obstacles that lie in the path of pursuing our potentials.
-inferiority complex-
Due to children's limitation in size and ability they tend to feel inferior at some degree. The way they handle this feeling of inferiority is with
drive for superiority
this a form of compensation which drives us to try harder.
Horney was known as one of the most harsh critics of Freud's perspective of female development.
Basic anxiety
stems from
harsh parenting. This theory is associated with isolation as well as helplessness and a constant fear of hostile surroundings.
Basic hostility
refers to the resentment that children may harbor towards their parents. She believed that children repress their hostility towards their parents due to the fear of losing them and or reprecussions that may be associated.
The Humanistic Perspective
What is
humanistic psychology
-The idea that conscious choice and personal freedom are central features of what it means to be a human being. Basically that we are not controlled by our unconscious minds or environment and we have the ability to make free choices.
Carl Rogers:
The Importance of Self
- each person has an inner drive that leads us to realizing our own unique individual potential.
His theory is referred to as
self theory
. He believed that the self is the organizing center of the personality, it determines how we see and interact with the World. It is also what makes us individuals with our own interests and values.
Carl Rogers cont.
He also said that the self includes a sense of
self concept
, or impressions that you have of your self. This theory highlights the importance of getting to know yourself and being true to yourself regardless of other opinion.
Carl Rogers cont.
Self esteem mirrors how others see us, how people value us or fail to value us.
This is why he encouraged parents to use
unconditional positive regard
or that parents should prize their children regardless of behavior at a given moment.
However many parents use
conditional positive regard
or that their children are only acceptable when behaving socially appropriately.
Abraham Marslow
Much like Rogers, Marslow believed in an innate drive towards
(pursuing our own potentials)
Marslow thought that if every person was given opportunity they would strive towards self-actualization. He also recognized that very few of us become fully self actualized.
Summary of Rogers and Marslow
In summation we take from these two men that each person has individual thoughts, needs, feelings, and desires and that because of this we can not abide by what others say while still being completely true to ourselves.
Culture and Self-Identity
Personality has a lot to do with the culture in which you were raised. If you were raised in a
collectivistic culture
you may define yourself in terms of the social roles you have taken on or the social roles the group has taken on.
You also may have been raised in a
individualistic culture
which would cause you to define yourself in terms of your own unique individuality.

Cheyenne Smith #30
Betty Ogba #31
Hannah Zamora #32

The Trait Perspective
Trait perspective
refers to how theorists look to the personality to explain behavior.
are a distinctive set of characteristics or dispositions that the personality consists of.
Greg Allport
Cardinal traits
Central traits
Secondary traits

Cardinal Traits
Allport believed that traits were organized in a pyramid-like fashion according to their amount of influence on behavior.
Cardinal Traits
stand as the highest degree of influence on behavior. They are characteristics that influence a person's behavior in most situations.
As an example, Martin Luther King's Cardinal Trait would be his passion for social justice
Central Traits
Central traits
serve as the second rung or "medium" part of the pyramid
They are considered the basic building blocks of the personality and influence general behavior in several situation.
Examples of a central traits are generosity, competitiveness, independence, and fearfulness.
Secondary Traits
Secondary traits
are the most shallow traits.
For example preferences of music or clothing that may influence behavior in few situations
Raymond Cattell
surface traits
are characteristics that can be inferred from observations of behavior.
Example of

surface traits are friendliness, stubborness, and emotionality
- It is important to note that traits often occur together. These joined traits show us that personality is multi-layered. Basically that surface traits give way to
source traits.
Raymond Cattell (cont.)
Source traits
are general factors of personality. He learned to measure these traits by his
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.
Which basically compare sixteen individual source traits such as reserved versus outgoing or seriousness versus happy-go-lucky.
Hans Eysenck
Hans constructed a simpler model of personality which describes personality into three major categories
Introversion- Extraversion
People who introverted are solitary and reserved and unsociable where as extaverts and out going personable and social people.
People who have high neuroticism or emotional instability are anxious, worrysome, restless and moody. People who have low neuroticism (emotional instability) are calm, relaxed, stable and even-tempered
People who have high psychoticism are cold, antisocial and insensitive. People who have low pyschoticism are warm and sensitive
The Five Factor Model of Personality
"Big Five"
is a consolidation and intergration of traits previously noted by other theorists that captures five broad factors found most consistently in research on personality traits in different cultures.
Social Cognitive Prospective
Social Cognitive Theory
-Values placed on rewards
-Expectations we hold about the outcome of our behavior
-Learning that occurs through imitating the behavior of others we observe in social situations.
Overall meaning of social cognitive theory is that the personality consists of two forms of learning and stresses the importance of learning through observation not influence alone. i.e rewards and punishment
Julian Rotter
Believed that explaining and predicting personality has to do with understanding an individuals past reinforcement history and desires for their futures
as well as the worth in their possible outcomes
(subjective value).
-Subjective value
-Locus of control

-"locus" means "place" in Latin
Internal Locus of Control
- the belief that you can obtain reinforcement through work and effort
External Locus of Control
- external fores such as fate and luck
"Internals" are assumed to be more likely to succeed than "Externals".
Locus of Control
Simply a personal prediction that is derived of out of your behavior. It describes your desires for the future
Albert Bandura
Believes that people are active, contributing factors in their lives and circumstances and not solely a product.
His theories:
-Reciprocal determinism
-Outcome expectations
-Efficacy of expectations
Defense Mechanisms (Freud)
Kate Horney
- Basic animal drives and basic biological needs (hunger, thirst elimination, sex, and aggression)pleasure principal:the demand for instant gratification without regards to social rules or custom
- Seeks ways to satisfy the demands of the ID without incurring social disapproval reality principle: the basis for operating in the world by taking into account what is practical and acceptable

- Our internal moral guardian or conscience. From the age of 3 to 5 years old the superego splits from the ego in a process where teachings from significant figures internalize.
Reciprocal Determinism
Example: A child acting out in school because he or she does not like school. The child's behavior causes teachers to create a restrictive environment which in turn creates more negative feelings associated with school.
Predictions of the outcomes of behavior
Outcome Expectations
Example: Someone is more likely to drink in social situations if you believe that it will bring a pleasant experience.
A person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.
Efficacy Expectations
Walter Mischel
Piggy backed Rotter and Bandura. His theories of
situation variables
person variables
overlapped with theirs extensively.
-extended their theories of person variables with:
1) competencies
2) encoding strategies
3)self regulatory systems
Situation Variables
- Environmental factor such as rewards and punishments
Person Variables
- internal person factors
Situation Variables Competencies-
knowledge and skills we posses like the ability to play an instrument.
Encoding Strategies
- personal perceptions of events such as whether we see a basket of flowers as a gesture of love or way of apologizing.
Self regulatory systems and plans
- ability to plan courses of action to achieve our goals and reward ourselves for acomplishment
Predictions you hold about your ability to perform tasks or behaviors you set out to accomplish.

High Self Efficacy-
Are likely to under take challenges and preservere in the face of adversity.
Low Self Efficacy-
Are easily convinced of the uselessness of effort in the face of difficulty.
Structure of Personality
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