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William Baffin

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Gina Pulsinelli

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of William Baffin

Overview
William Baffin's Motivation
Did Baffin Accomplish His Mission?
Hardships/Challenges Encountered by Baffin on His Voyages
William Baffin
By: Gina Pulsinelli
William Baffin
Experienced Arctic Explorer in Search of
The Northwest Passage
Thank you for your time.

I hope you enjoyed my presentation on William Baffin, experienced Arctic explorer
in search of
the Northwest Passage.
Like many other explorers before him, William Baffin was motivated to find
The Northwest Passage
.

The Northwest Passage:
is a sea route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean via the waters surrounding Canada's Arctic islands.

The Source of Finance for Baffin's Voyages
Basically, William Baffin's expeditions to find the Northwest Passage were financed by England.

More specifically they were financed by
The Governor and Company of Merchants of London, Discoverers of the Northwest Passage.
Elite group headed by Henry, Prince of Wales and included knights, baronets and wealthy merchants.
Who Were the Investors?
Why Invest?
Finding the Northwest Passage for England was very important because if successful, it meant:

there would be a commercial route to the Orient
increased trade
more money
national and political recognition
increased strength and power worldwide
Background Information
Years Of Expedition
No, William Baffin did not accomplish his mission. He had to abandon his voyage of 1616 because of extreme ice conditions. He gave up hope on finding the Northwest Passage.

William Baffin deserves an honorable mention for trying because:

he was the one explorer who travelled the farthest north in the Arctic, discovering Smith Sound.
he also discovered Lancaster Sound, which is the entrance to the Northwest Passage but he didn't know it at the time. (It wasn't until the early 1900s that they would figure this out.)

After Baffin, England gave up on trying to find the Northwest Passage for over 200 years.
Background Information
Years of Expedition
Baffin's Motivation
Source of Finance for his Voyages
Did Baffin Accomplish his Mission?
Technological Advances that Allowed Exploration at the Time
Hardships/Challenges Encountered on Voyages
Baffin's Perception of Aboriginal People
Baffin's Impact on Canada's Development
Bibliography
William Baffin was a British navigator and explorer.

He was born in
London, England in1584
.

Born into a lower-class family, Baffin did not receive a formal education. He was self educated, always developing his navigational skills.

Baffin was married but it is unknown if he had children.

Tragically, William Baffin died on
January 23, 1622 in the Persian Gulf
. The cause of death was war. He was killed by a cannonball to the stomach.

In this presentation on William Baffin, the following will be explored:
Harsh Climate
: Freezing cold temperatures caused ropes and sails to freeze therefore making navigation a challenge.

Ice
: Large, thick masses of ice in the Arctic made it very difficult and dangerous to maneuver a ship. Horrible ice conditions in Baffin's 1615 and 1616 voyages forced him to head back to England.

Hunger
: Food was limited on a ship but Baffin was always optimistic that it was possible to find food from the sea (probably because of his whaling experience).
Aboriginal Attacks Causing Death
: On Baffin's 1612 voyage, Captain James Hall was speared to death by Inuits.

Illness
: On Baffin's voyage of 1616 some men got
scurvy
.
Scurvy
: is caused by the lack of vitamin C and can be fatal. The men at sea had no fruits and vegetables to eat.

bleeding gums and loosening of teeth
extreme tiredness
stiff joints
diarrhea
internal bleeding
Symptoms Include
:


William Baffin explored from 1612-1622
.

1612
: Acted as chief pilot on a discovery mission to Greenland with Captain James Hall.

1613-1614
: Baffin went on 2 whaling expeditions to Spitsbergen. Whales were killed for their meat, blubber was converted into oil (used for lamps) and whale bones/baleen were used to make tools, corsets and horsewhips.

1615
: Baffin served as pilot aboard the Discovery with Captain Robert Bylot. Their goal was to find the Northwest Passage. They examined the Hudson Strait on this voyage.

1616
: Sailed back out on the Discovery with Captain Bylot again but this time they went up Davis Strait. Baffin discovered what today is called Baffin Bay and he mapped the entrances to Lancaster, Smith and Jones Sounds (all named after the men that sponsored his voyage).
1617-1619
: Baffin sailed to Surat in British India before going to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf which he surveyed and charted.

1620-1622
: Baffin sailed back out to the East again. The Anglo-Persian forces combined to take over the Portuguese but sadly Baffin died as a result of war.
Baffin's Perception of the Aboriginal People
There isn't a lot of information on Baffin interacting with the Aboriginals.

In 1612, he witnessed Captain James Hall be killed by Inuits. He was killed out of revenge because Captain Hall had taken Inuit captives on his previous voyages.

Yet in 1616, while exploring Davis Strait, Baffin met and traded peacefully with Inuits along the west coast of Greenland.

Baffin probably had mixed emotions towards the Aboriginals having seen both sides of them.
Impact William Baffin Had on Canada
Baffin was an experienced Arctic explorer who is remembered as a highly skilled mapmaker.

In his voyage of 1616, he mapped in detail the Bay that would be named in his honor.

Baffin's accuracy was impeccable and because of this, W.E Perry named Baffin Bay and Baffin Island after him.

Baffin Island is located in the Canadian Territory of Nunavut.
It is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest in the world.
Baffin Bay
Baffin Island
Technological Advances That Allowed Exploration at the Time
Ship: The Discovery, used by Baffin in 1615 and 1616 was a sturdy and reliable ship that held up well in the Arctic.. It had been used previously in 3 other expeditions by other explorers.

Lead Line: A rope with a weight, usually lead, that was used to measure water depth.

Compass: Baffin's data showed that there was a magnetic variation in the Far North. Today we know there is a difference between Magnetic North and True North.

Quadrant: An instrument used to measure the angular distance of celestial bodies and the horizon.

Baffin was the first one to determine longitude by using the angular distance of the moon from a star.
Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lancaster_Sound

(n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smith_Sound

(n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Passage

(n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baffin_Bay

(n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baffin_Island

"William Baffin." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004, "Baffin, William." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2015, "Baffin, William." World Encyclopedia. 2005, Cannon, J., & Knowles, E. (2004). William Baffin. Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/William_Baffin.aspx

Biography – BAFFIN, WILLIAM – Volume I (1000-1700) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/baffin_william_1E.html

Northwest Passage - Canadian Arctic - Marine Expeditions. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.ourheritage.net/great_adventures/marine_expedtions/northwest_passage/Canada_Arctic/NP3.html

Struzik, E., & Beedell, M. (1991). Northwest Passage: The quest for an Arctic route to the east. Toronto, Ont.: Key Porter Books.

William Baffin. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.nndb.com/people/173/000100870/

William Baffin. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/william-baffin/

Williams, G. (2009). Arctic labyrinth: The quest for the Northwest Passage. Toronto: Viking Canada.


Most Northern Point Traveled at the Time in the Arctic
Entrance to Northwest Passage but Baffin Did Not Realize It!
Full transcript