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The Bible

Bible studies 1-4 - summarizing the books of the Bible
by

Jennifer Davis

on 11 May 2015

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Transcript of The Bible

The Bible
TODAY
Versions
NIV (New International Version)
CEB (Common English Bible)
ESV (English Standard Version)
ASB and NASB (American Standard Bible)
*GNB (Good News Bible)
*MSG (The Message)
KJV and NKJV (King James Version)
*NLT (New Living Translation)
OJB (Orthodox Jewish Bible)
ETC

New Testament
The Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Acts
Paul's letters: Romans - Philemon
General Epistles: Hebrews - Jude
Revelation
Other Old Testament books
History (Judges - Esther)
Wisdom Writings (Psalms - Song of Solomon)
Major Prophets (Isaiah - Daniel)
12 Minor Prophets (Hosea - Malachi)
Pentateuch
Also known as the Torah, the Five Books of Moses, or the Law
They are the first five books of our Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Central Verses
Judaism
Jews were spread out into the world because of the exile. They had given up greatness, but still dreamed of revolution. The Temple was destroyed several times - but finally in 70 CE it was destroyed by Nero, about the time that many of the New Testament books were written.
The language of Palestine during New Testament times was
Aramaic
- a language of Syria (one of the conquering nations) and closely related to Hebrew.
Hellenism

Genesis-Revelation


Original Language: Hebrew
Deuteronomy 6:4-9

The "Shmah" - 6:4
Who wrote it?

Traditionally: Moses
Evangelicals and Fundamentalists (either Jewish or Christian) still affirm this belief.
HOWEVER
When scholars looked closely at the stories contained in the first five books - particularly Genesis - it became evident that they are cobbled together by a variety of authors. There are two accounts recorded of various events - the creation story or the naming of Isaac, for example.
Another clue is the final chapter of Deuteronomy - how could Moses have recorded his own death?
Based on use of language and type of content, scholars break it down to:
J E D P
and
R
* - easy to read, strays furthest away from original languages
NRSV
New Revised Standard Version: The one we use here at church, and the one used by most seminaries and divinity schools for study.
RSV - 1946-1952
Put together the most current discoveries of
ancient texts (Dead Sea Scrolls - discovered during the time of writing) and 32 Hebrew and Greek scholars t0 write the most up to date and accurate version.
New version corrected original to gender neutral language in 1989.

Catholic and Orthodox Version contains:
Apocrypha
A series of books that the Catholic Church included in the Old Testament that were not written in Hebrew. Luther, borrowing from St Jerome's teaching, put them in an area between the Old and New Testaments saying that they were not part of the original canon. Protestant reformers following Luther used the rallying cry, Solo Scriptura! (scripture alone) to exclude them from further versions of the their Bibles. Catholic Bibles include them as an Inter-testamental section between the Old and the New Testaments.
THEN
NOW
Alexander the Great conquered the then known world - lands previously conquered by Persia.
So the language of commerce was
GREEK
- even in Roman times, Latin was used only for formal documents and law making.
Much of Paul's letters are about the clash between Jewish and Hellenist philosophies - he was the first true New Testament theologian, interpreting Jesus' teachings to the Gentile and Jewish Christian world.
Yahweh - adonai or LORD
Earliest Gospel = Mark

1. The shortest gospel: 16 chapters, 17, 171 words
2. Written for Roman/gentile readers.
3. Stresses Jesus works rather than his words
4. Uses one word 41 times - "Immediately" (greek - eutheos or euthus)
5. Traditionally written between 58-68 CE
1. 28 chapters, 18345 words
2. Written for Jewish audience, stressing Jesus' as Messiah according to Hebrew scriptures.
3. Jesus = super law (hard teachings)
4. Touch phrases:
"Son of David"
"Kingdom of Heaven"
"That which was spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled" (which does not appear in any of the other gospels)
5. Most likely written after the fall of the temple in 70 CE.
Matthew
Luke
1. Written by Luke, a physician, who also wrote the book of Acts. Most likely supposed to be read together as one book.
2. 24 Chapters, 19482 words (longest gospel)
3. Most likely written between 70 and 100 CE, although some scholars believe 85 CE is probable.
4. Written for a gentile audience by a gentile.
5. Key words: "Son of Man," "Kingdom of God."
6. Key themes: repentance, discipleship
a word about sources...
Both Matthew and Luke share a lot of common material with Mark - which has lead scholars to believe that the two gospels had read Mark before writing and used his material in their recounting of Jesus' story.

In addition, Matthew and Luke share other material as well - about a third of their stories - that came from another source, NOT included in Mark. Scholars call this source - "Q." They tell the same stories in such a way that it is apparent that they lifted them from somewhere. Unfortunately, this source, Q, has not been found.
The Gospel of John
1. Stands alone: Uses images and metaphors to tell the story in a way very different from the other three gospels. ("I am the way, the truth, and the life." Or "In the beginning was the Word...") So different, that it is a whole category of study in and of itself.
2. Written probably between 80 and 90 CE, by (traditionally) the disciple John, but possibly by a disciple of the disciple who wrote down his teachings.
3. 21 Chapters, 15,635 words.
4. Beautiful language side by side with bitter representations of "the Jews," especially "the Pharisees." It seems antisemitic in tone, but is rather a class distinction rather than a cultural one. John is against those whose authority lies in the Temple, those who determine 'who is in and who is out.' John's community was most likely rejected by the Traditional Jewish community within which it resides.
John 1:1-5
In the beginning was the Word, and the word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through him, and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being in him was life, and the life was the light of all people. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overcome it.
The other books in the
New Testament:
Acts -
the story of the beginning of the church
Paul's letters:
*Romans - the first book of Christian theology
*1 & 2 Corinthians, *Galatians, Ephesians, *Philippians, Colossians,
*1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, Titus, *Philemon
Other Letters:
1 &2 Timothy, Hebrews, James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1,2,&3 John, Jude
Revelation

(* means this book was, according to scholars, written by Paul himself.)
Summary
: dramatically tells the story of the beginnings and growth of the church - from the ascension of Jesus to Paul's arrival in Rome, and from a small group of Jewish followers to a larger one that included gentiles.
During this period of history, there are many accounts of famous people that have a similar structure and title. ("Acts of Paul and Thecla" for example)
Author
: Traditionally - Luke, the physician, as a continuation of the gospel of Luke.

Important stories:
Coming of the Holy Spirit to the disciples (Pentecost)
Acts 2
Conversion of Saul (Paul) on road to Damascus
Acts 9
Peter's conversion to preach to the gentiles
Acts 10
Peter's miraculous escape from prison
Acts 12
Paul's "escape" from prison
Acts 16
Paul in Athens
Acts 17


Paul of Tarsus
Persecutor of Christians
Zealous Convert
First Theologian
First Missionary
Thus he wrote letters to the churches he started - each letter addressing particular church and their issues.
Paul's letters:
*Romans - the first book of Christian theology
*1 & 2 Chorinthians, *Galatians, Ephesians, *Philippians, Colossians,
*1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, Titus, *Philemon
* undisputed
Pastoral Letters:
1 &2 Timothy
Hebrews
James
1 & 2 Peter
1, 2 ,& 3 John
Jude
What the Letters Do:
1. Encourage
2. Teach
3. Address problems and/or disputes within the church
4. Warn against false prophets and teachings
Memory Verse:
Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus.
Philippians 4:6-7
Favorite verses:
Revelation 21:1-7, 22:1-5
"Shall We Gather at the River?
Shall we gather at the river,
Where bright angel feet have trod,
With its crystal tide forever
Flowing by the throne of God?
Refrain:
Yes, we’ll gather at the river,
The beautiful, the beautiful river;
Gather with the saints at the river
That flows by the throne of God.
On the margin of the river,
Washing up its silver spray,
We will talk and worship ever,
All the happy golden day.
Ere we reach the shining river,
Lay we every burden down;
Grace our spirits will deliver,
And provide a robe and crown.
At the smiling of the river,
Mirror of the Savior’s face,
Saints, whom death will never sever,
Lift their songs of saving grace.
Soon we’ll reach the silver river,
Soon our pilgrimage will cease;
Soon our happy hearts will quiver
With the melody of peace.
Favorite Verses:
Romans 8 (most dense theology chapter)
1 Corinthians 13 (Paul's poem about love)
1 Corinthians 14:37-40 (helping with church issue)
2 Corinthians 4:7-10 (teaching)
Philippians 3: 12-4:1 (encouragement)
2 Thessalonians 3: 10-12 (teaching)
2 Timothy 3: 1-9 (warning of false teaching)
James 3:1-12 (Taming the Tongue)
Hebrew Bible Memory Verse:
Deuteronomy 6:4-9
Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might. Keep these words that I am commanding you today in your heart. Recite them to your children and talk about them when you are at home and when you are away, when you lie down and when you rise. Bind them as a sign on your hand, fix them as an emblem on your forehead, and write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.
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