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Nature of God

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Hannah Armson

on 11 July 2013

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Transcript of Nature of God

The Nature of God
Judaism
Jews believe in
one
God (God the Father.)


Jews don't know about God, they believe in him
How Jews know what God is like:
Story in the Bible,
Exodus 33
:
Moses and God are quite close through
talking
to each other- 'The Lord would speak to
Moses
face to face, as a man speaks with his friend.'
After getting the
10 Commandments
Moses wants to see God, so that he can know what he is really like, however God wouldn't let him- 'You cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live...'
The 'Chosen' People
Jews believe that they are the
chosen ones
that
God
brought to Earth to show everybody how to act
morally
. They believe they are in this special group because of the
promise
made by
God
and
Abraham
.

The First
Covenant
-
God
asked
Abraham
to do certain things for him, in return God
promised
to make
Abraham

the
father
of an important family (who eventually make up the group of
Israelites
.)
God
said that Abraham and his descendants must
obey

him.
In return
God
would
guide
them and
protect
them. He would also give them the
land
of Israel.

Messiah
Jews believe that one day a
Messiah
will come. They believe person will be a
descendant
from
King David
who will be
sent from God
to come and
rule
the Jews with their
Jewish laws
and then eventually bring
peace to the world
. However some Jews believe that there
wont be an individual messenger
sent to perfect the world, instead it will be down to
human efforts
.

Jesus
was seen as a
Messiah
who lived on Earth to help the
Israelites
in
Egypt
under
slavery
.
Shema
Judaism
Afterlife Key Words
Hannah Armson and Hayley Goodwin
They believe that God created the universe
on his own
and that every Jew can have a
personal
and
exclusive relationship
with God.
They believe that God; is above everybody else
(transcendent)
, can do anything
(omnipotent)
, is everywhere
(omnipresent)
, is all knowing
(omniscient)
, has always existed, and that he's
rewarding
,
punishing
but also
forgiving
. Jews also believe that God
sustains
life on Earth and is the
Lawgiver
.
1 idea of God from a Jewish viewpoint:
God is an
all-powerful
being who is
far beyond human ability to understand
or imagine.
Another idea:
God is right
here
with us, caring about each
individual
as a
parent
does their
child
.

'It's what you do that counts'
Covenant
-
promise
Abraham's Family Tree
The first verse reflects
Jewish belief
-
"Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is one."
(Deuteronomy 6:4)

Jews see the
Shema
as a very
important prayer
as it is based on a
mitzvah
(one of their
commandments
.) Jews say this prayer
twice a day
in their prayer service usually in the
morning
and
evening
.

Some Jews teach their children to say this word as their
last word
before they got to
sleep
.

The
Shema
is often used in
Jewish funerals
to
confirm
the persons
belief in God
, consequently
leading
them to
Heaven
.
Gan Eden
- the
Garden of Eden
. Jewish idea of
Heaven
.

Gehinnon
- one of the names for the place for
punishment
of
sins
in the
afterlife
. (A bit like
purgatory
.)

Yahrzeit
- the
yearly anniversary
of the
death
of a loved on. A
candle
is lit for
24h
in the
homes
of
family
and
friends.
A
year after
the death is a time of
judgement
for the deceased- whether to
Gehinnon
or
Gan Eden
.

Yizkor
- charitable
contributions
in
memory
of a loved one.

Kaddish
- is a
prayer
for ones departed. It's
recited

daily
during the
first year

after
a persons passing. It is seen to have the
ability to lift the soul out of

Gehinnon
to the
Gan Eden.

Before Death
Prayers
for
sickness
1)
Confirmation
of
belief
in
one
God (
Shema
is used.)
2)
Plea
of
help
from
God
.
3) A
confession
of the
sins
and a
desire
to
rectify wrong doings
to the
Rabbi
.

Jewish belief
in
Heaven

Ezekiel 1:1
- believes in Heaven and is a profit.
Genesis 28:12
- believes in Heaven.
The Funeral
The funeral must happen within
24 hours
of the death.
During this time the body
should not
be left
alone
.
A
Shomer
(guardian)
looks after
the body at this time and
recites psalms
(eg.
The Lord is my Shepherd
, psalm 23.)
The
Shomer
is normally a
relative
or
friend
.
The
body

must be
cleaned
and
shrouded
(covered in
white cloth
) to abide by
Jewish law
.
No embalming
or
cosmetics
are used.
No autopsies
are
permitted

unless
they are
legally required
(eg. to
identify
a
murderer
.) If they are
permitted
a
Rabbi
must be
present
.
The
tassels
from the
Tallith
(
prayer shawl
) are
cut off
to show the
deceased

no longer
needs to
follow
the
613 Mitzvot
.
Jewish funerals
are
simple
and
respectful
. They usually last
15-60m
.
Music
and
flowers
are
avoided
so everyone can
focus
on the
loss
of the loved one.
Tallith- Prayer Shawl
Jewish Funerals
Rabbi talking about funerals
Burial
There are
no undertakers
in traditional Jewish communities.
Members
of the
synagogue
take care of the
funeral arrangements
, this group is called the
Chevra Kaddisha
.
They also each put a
shovel of soil
on top of the
coffin
to bury it.
Shiva
Shiva
is the period of
intense mourning
which lasts for
7 days

after
the funeral.
This is
followed by a semi-mourning period
which lasts for
30 days
.
If a
parent dies
the
semi-mourning
lasts a
full year
.
Elijah
Elijah
was a
worthy

prophet
that
didn't die
. Instead he was taken up to
Heaven
in a
chariot
. There is
proof
that
Elijah
was
alive-
therefore
confirming
peoples
belief
in
God
and
Heaven
. It shows
religion
that
Heaven
is/could be a
physical realm
.
'And as they still went on and talked, behold, chariots of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.'
(
2 Kings, 2:11
)
Traditional funeral prayer
- May God console you together with all the memories of Zion and Jerusalem. (It is said to the family of the deceased, usually by the mourners.)
Psalms
used in Jewish Funerals:
23
- 'The Lord is my Shepherd'
91
- 'Those who live in the shelter of the most high'
2 Samuel 14:14
- "Like water spilled on the ground..."
Psalm 23:
The Lord is my Shepherd; I shall not want.
He has me lie down in green pastures,
He leads me beside the still waters.
He revives my soul;
He guides me on paths of righteousness for His glory.
Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
I fear no harm,
For you are with me.
Your rod and your staff do comfort me.
You set a table in sight of my enemies;
You anoint my head with rich oil; my cup overflows.
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life,
And I shall abide in the house of the Lord for ever.
Star of David
Tallit(h)
Shema
Mezuzah
Tefillin
Torah
Kippah
Menorah
Yad
Dreidel
Symbol of Judaism
A prayer shawl
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-shema/4746.html
Hebrew text
Sacred scroll including prayers from the Torah
Pointer used when reading the Torah
A game
Seven branched candlestick
Read in synagogues. 1/5 books of the Hebrew Bible
Tape physically binding commandments
Male prayer cap
What do Christians believe about God?
All-good (Omnibenevolent)
All-powerful (Omnipotent)
All-knowing
(Omniscient)
Is everywhere
(Omnipresent)
Creator
Sustainer
Intervenes in the universe (eg. through miracles)
Christianity
The Holy Trinity
God
Jesus
Spirit
Father
is
is not
is not
is not
is
is
God is like water: steam form, liquid form and ice form
Father
Christians
see
God
as a
Father
because they believe that he
created
the world, including
ourselves
and that
everyone
on Earth are his
children
.
Christians

look up to God
like a
child
does to their
Father
. They believe in
one God
like
Judaism
.

In the
Old Testament

God
is said to be the
Creator
,
Lord
,
Father
and
Judge
.
Jesus (Son)
God
lived on
Earth
as
Jesus
(
human representation
-
physical form
.)
Jesus
was both
wholly God
and
wholly human
.
Jesus
was
born
to
Mary
but
conceived
of the
Holy Spirit
.
Agnostics
then say, well how can you be
two
things at once?
Jesus
was

born
into
scandal
(
mother
was
accused
of having an
affair
and his
family
were
poor
.)
Jesus
was subject to
pain
,
suffering
and
sorrow
.
He was
executed
on the
cross
so that
believers
would be
forgiven
from their
sins
.
He
understands betrayal
,
scandal
,
hard work
,
ultimate suffering
and
temptation
through
experiencing
them.
Holy Spirit
After resurrection
(
before
he went up to
Heaven
)
Jesus promised
that he would
stay
with his followers. So he
sent
his
Spirit
to
guide
them.
The
Holy Spirit
continues to
guide
,
comfort
and
encourage Christians
.
The
Holy Spirit
is the
element
of
God
that lives
within
you.


Dove
=
Holy Spirit

God
Evidence that he is
omnipresent
(
everywhere
)
cross
Southern Cross- Crux
Laminim
cross
Religious connection- could explain their disappearance with the crucifixion of Jesus
'Light of the World'
'Messiah'
'Redeemer'
Experiencing God
Physical
- eg.
seeing God
or
asking
to make someone who is
sick
,
better
, and it
happening
. Some
Christians
have experienced God
talking
to them.
Emotional
- eg.
knowing
that
God
is there through events like
death
and
birth
(an
inner feeling
.)
Mental
- eg.
dreaming
about
God
, maybe
seeing
and
talking
to him in a
dream
.
Worship
(
praising

God
) can be done through
song
or
prayer
.
Prayer
- Prayer is a way of
thinking
about
God
,
talking
to God and
feeling
that
life
is
different
.
The Lord's Prayer
Reading
sacred
text like

the
Bible
and
Torah
- Sometimes people find they have a
special meaning
for them at a
particular time
in their lives. As they read it they
feel inspired
and
moved
. Its sometimes just
words
but it's as if
God
were
speaking
to them
directly
.
Natural

Beauty
and
Wonder
There are many things in the
world of nature
and sometimes a person feels a
sense of awareness
that there is
God involved in

creation
, somewhere.
-
Stars at night
-
Sunset
-
Moon
Miracles
William Wilberforce
was the
politician
who helped to
abolish
the
slave trade
in the
British Isles
and was a founding
member
of the
RSPCA
. He's seen as a
wonder of nature
.
Martin Luther King
fought for the
rights
of
black Americans
(
Civil Rights Movement
.) He was a
strong believer in God
.
Act of Benevolence
(Miracle)
Sometimes a
miracle
is
experienced
almost as if it were an
act
of
generosity
by God. People may feel that they have
experienced God
because he has been
good
to them or
given them a gift
in some way. Some
believe God
has helped them
cure sickness
.
Betel
is an
charitable organisation
who
help
people with drug, alcohol and gambling
addictions
. They are seen as a
miracle
.
http://www.betel.org.uk/
Dave Bell
had
cancer
and there was a very
strong chance
that he
wouldn't survive
. He was the
only one
on the hospital ward that
believed in God
and
asked for help
from him. He
beat cancer
in
7 months
. He wrote a book about his experience.
http://www.newlifelincoln.org.uk/store/index.php?_a=viewProd&productId=34
The Soul
Mind
,
body
and
soul
:
Christians
believe that your
mind
,
body
and
soul
are all
connected
to
God
. They believe that your
soul

belongs to God
.
Some
Christians
believe
that your
soul
is what makes
you as a person
(eg. your
personality
and
characteristic traits
.)
Others
believe it is the
part
of you that
goes
to
Heaven
and
lives on
.
Socrates
(A
Greek Philosopher
):
'Do not mourn for my dead body, for the physical dies, my soul returns to the
perfect
,
eternal realm
.' -He is basically saying that you
shouldn't grieve
over my
death
because I will be in a
great place
that is
perfect
.
Freud's Theory
:
Id: Childlike greed
Ego: All in consciousness
Superego: Highest moral standard
According to
Christians
, the
soul
is what makes us
human
.
Christians believe that when
God

created
the
world
, he
made people
in his
own image
.
-
Mind

-
Body
-
Soul
=
God breathed

life
into
humans
(gave them a soul) and then
took it back at death
. It
belongs to God
.

We
are
more important
to
Christians
than
animals
as
we have a soul
.
Dominion
-
stewardship over animals
Theist
= Believer in God
Atheist
= Non-believer
Agnostic
= Unsure
Death
Afterlife
:
Jesus
said: 'I am the way, the truth and the life. No one can come to the Father except through me.' This means that you
can't go to Heaven
if you
don't believe
in
Jesus
. He is the
doorway
.
Many Christians
believe
Heaven
is the idea that
after death
, the
soul lives on forever
.
Some Christians
believe in the
traditional idea
of
Heaven
as a
paradise

where they will
live forever
. Even if
Christians do not

understand
the
idea of Heaven
they find it
comforting
to think that
death is not the end
.

There are
different interpretations
of the
afterlife
.
Different Ideas About Afterlif
e
Old
: The
early Christian church
believed that
Hell
was a place of
fire and torture
where people would go if they
did not believe
in Christ.

New
: That idea has been
replaced
by the new idea that
Hell
is an
eternity without God
- a
state of mind
rather than a place.

Catholics
:
Purgatory
(limbo)
Roman Catholics
believe that
purgatory
is a state
after death
, for people whose
souls are not ready
for
Heaven
.
Catholics pray
for the
souls
of people who have
died
, so that they will
not stay in purgatory
. From
purgatory
, the
soul
can
only go into

Heaven
and not to Hell.
Interpretation of Heaven
Interpretation of Hell
Before Death
Jesus, bible: 'He who believes in me shall not die but have everlasting life.'
Catholics
-
Last Rites
:
Officially called the
Viaticum
, the
sacrament of dying
(
1 of 7
) Consist of:
-
Confession
(receive
absolution from sin
.)
-
Stating their faith
(sometimes say the
Apostles Creed
).
-
Prayer
,
communion
(
bread and wine
) and then a
blessing
.
Apostles Creed
(
states your faith
)
1.
I believe in God the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth:
2.
And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord:
3.
Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary:
4.
Suffered under Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead and buried: He descended into hell:
5.
The third day he rose again from the dead:
6.
He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty:
7.
From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead:
8.
I believe in the Holy Ghost:
9.
I believe in the holy catholic church: the communion of saints:
10.
The forgiveness of sins:
1l.
The resurrection of the body:
12.
And the life everlasting. Amen.
Christian Funerals
Coffin received
at the door by the
minister
.
Sentences of
Scripture
(from the
Bible
) may be used.
Minister welcomes
congregation and
introduces
the
service
.
A
tribute
may be made to the
deceased
.
Prayers of Penitence
may be used.
Readings
from the
Bible
,
psalms
and
hymns
may follow.
Sermon
.
Prayers
-
Thanksgiving
for life.
-
Prayer
for the
mourning
.
-
Prayers of Penitence
(if not already used.)
-
Prayer
for
readiness
to
live
in the

light of eternity
.
Deceased
is then

commended to God
with
authorized words
.
Body is taken
to its
resting place
with
authorized words
.
The
service
may
end
with a
blessing
.
Prayer of Penitent
My God,
I am sorry for my sins with all my heart.
In choosing to do wrong
and failing to do good,
I have sinned against you
whom I should love above all things.
I firmly intend, with your help
to do penance,
to sin no more,
and to avoid whatever leads me to sin.
Our Savior Jesus Christ
suffered and died for us.
In his name, my God, have mercy.

Remember, Lord, your compassion and mercy
which you showed long ago.
Do not recall the sins and failings of my youth.
In your mercy remember me, Lord, because of your goodness.
Psalm 24:6-7
Traditional Christian Hymns
-Amazing Grace






-All Things Bright and Beautiful






-How Great Thou Art





skip to 0.51
Prayer used in Funerals
Almighty God,
You love everything you have made
and judge us with infinite mercy and justice.
We rejoice in your promises of pardon, joy and peace
to all those who love you.
In your mercy turn the darkness of death into the dawn of new life,
and the sorrow of parting into the joy of heaven;
through our Saviour Jesus Christ,
who died, rose again, and lives for evermore.
Amen.

Christianity
Judaism
Christianity
Cross
Fish
Trinity
Nicene
Apostles Creed
Bible
Church
New Testament
Old Testament
Creed- a statement of faith
Jesus died on a cross
Symbol for Christianity- also links with feeding the 5000 story
3 aspects of God
Creed- a statement of faith
Holy text/Scripture
Place of worship
The first part of the Bible, containing 39 books
The second part of the Bible, originally written in Greek, recording the life and teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers
Synagogue
The
synagogue
is the
Jewish
place of
worship
, but is also used as a place to
study
, and often as a
community centre
as well.
In
Orthodox synagogues

men
and
women
sit
separately
, and
everyone
(
except young girls
) has their
head covered
. In a
Reform synagogue

men
and
women

can sit together
.
Services
are usually led by
Rabbi's
.
Ultra-Orthodox Jews
- They are
extreme Orthodox Jews
that basically
disregard
the modern
world
to keep
studying
the
Torah
. It's a very
strict form
of
Judaism
.

Orthodox Jews
-
believe
that
God
gave
Moses
the
whole Torah
at
Mount Sinai
. They believe that the
Torah contains 613 mitzvot
(
commandments
) and they
study
the
Jewish law
.

Conservative Jews
-
believe
the
ideas
in the
Torah
came from
God
, but were somehow
changed by humans
. They
accept Jewish law
but think it should
change
to
fit with society
.

Reform Jews
-
believe
that the
Torah
was written by
different human sources
and then
includes God
. They
don't accept
the
Jewish law
however they
do incorporate
the
values of Judaism
into their
lives
.

Reconstructionist Jews
-
don't believe
that
God chose
the
Jewish
people as the
'chosen ones'
. They are
relaxed
about
Judaism
and may
study Jewish law
because it is
morally correct
,
not
because its a
law from God
.
Different types of Jews
Most strict
at the
top
Least strict
at the
bottom
Story of Abraham
History
Judaism
has about
13 million followers
throughout the world,
mostly
in the
USA
and
Israel
.

Judaism

originated
in the
Middle East 3500+
years ago.

Moses
was the
main founder
of
Judaism
, but
Jews
can
trace their history back
as far as
Abraham
.

Around
6 million Jews
were
murdered
in the
Holocaust
in an attempt to
wipe out Judaism
.
The
family
and
community
are very
important
within
Jewish life
.

The most
important day
of the
week
is
Shabbat
(the Sabbath day). On Shabbat
Jews

stop working
and
make time for God
and
family life
.

Shabbat starts
on
Friday evening
and
ends
at
sunset
on
Saturday
.

Shabbat

begins
with the
family sharing
a
meal
.
Shabbat
The
Jewish law
is called
halakhah
.
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