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Area 3: Cultural Clashes of the 1920s

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Laura Odom

on 23 March 2011

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Transcript of Area 3: Cultural Clashes of the 1920s

Cultural Clashes of the 1920s: Part 1 Palmer Raids Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and John Edgar Hoover crusade against left wing organizations used Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 Palmer claimed that Russian Communists agents were planning to overthrow US government. November 7, 1919 over 10,000 suspected communists arrested January 2, 1920 another 6,000 were arrested all were usually held without trial Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize by speech or writing the government or Constitution. Espionage Act of 1917 It prescribed a $10,000 fine and 20 years' imprisonment for interfering with the recruiting of troops or the disclosure of information dealing with national defence. Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize by speech or writing the government or Constitution. Scopes Trial Immigration Restrictions v. the Golden Door A nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents suddenly grabbed the American psyche in 1919 following a series of anarchist bombings. Two main groups were targeted:
~International Workers of the World
(the I.W.W. or Wobblies)
~Socialist Party Innocent people were jailed for expressing their views, civil liberties were ignored, and many Americans feared that a Bolshevik-style revolution was at hand. Then, in the early 1920s, the fear seemed to dissipate just as quickly as it had begun, and the Red Scare was over. 1925 John Thomas Scopes, a biology teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, was arrested for violating an act of the state legislature which prohibited the teaching of evolution in schools. The American Civil Liberties Union decided to take up the case. Clarence Darrow, offered to defend Scopes without a fee.
The trial began in Drayton on 11th July, 1925.
William Jennings Bryan, who believed the literal interpretation of the Bible, had been asked by the World Christian Fundamental Association to take part in what became known as the Monkey Trial.
the judge, John T. Raulston, refused to allow scientists to testify on the truth of evolution,
The jury found John Thomas Scopes guilty and the judge fined him $100. Red Scare "The whole lot were about as dangerous as a flea on an elephant." The First World War slowed immigration to the U.S. but, after the armistice, mass immigration resumed, reaching 805,000 in 1921.."
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 limited immigration to three percent of the number of immigrants of any particular country that had been living in the United States in 1910
Immigration Act of 1924
By 1928 immigration had declined to about 300,000, and just over a half million new arrivals entered the U.S. during the entire decade of the 1930s. Sacco and Vanzetti Trial The 1921 murder trial of the young Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti was one of the most controversial trials in U.S. history. For some observers, the trial was a way to bring two criminals to justice. For others, the two men were innocent of the crime but were found guilty because they were immigrants and political radicals. Defenders of Sacco and Vanzetti waged a fierce legal and public relations battle to save their lives, but the men were executed in 1927. Sedition Act the Sedition Act of 1918 made it a felony (1) to convey false statements interfering with American war efforts; (2) to willfully employ "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the U.S. form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or U.S. military or naval forces; (3) to urge the curtailed production of necessary war materials; or (4) to advocate, teach, defend, or suggest the doing of any such acts interest groups pressured the federal government to exclude unwelcome immigrants - prostitutes (originally Asian women), convicts, contract laborers, the mentally ill, and the diseased - and in some cases the government imposed a head tax on new arrivals. Cultural assimilation, also known as Americanization, was a less drastic means of dealing with the numerous ethnic enclaves in American cities. While restrictionists rejected immigrants entirely, assimilationists believed that immigrants could adapt to the American way of life. The Immigration Protective Association, the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, and representatives of the settlement house movement aimed at helping immigrants shed or at least diminish their Old World cultural roots and become "Americans."
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