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WY2013 Music Theory

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JY Tang

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of WY2013 Music Theory

Music intervals - distance between pitches beat - steady pulse, basic rhythmic unit
tempo - speed of beat
rubato- stretching the time the way music is organized in time musical form controls larger spans of time motive (motif)- recurring musical idea; has distinctive melodic and rhythmic profile
phrase- cohesive musical thought
antecedant/consequent phrase- related pairs of phrases that are similar
theme- set of phrases that make a complete melody sound organized in time -- a time art Pitch Volume amplitude
high amplitude=loud volume frequency high frequency=high pitch Hz= vibrations per sec 20 - 20,000 Hz 440 Hz = A440 sound waves vibrating column of air membrane vibrates body vibrates how Hz relates to octaves or A4 Rhythm 2 to 3 ratio C G D A E B F# C# G# D# A# E# C equal
temperament # sharps - raise one half step
b flats - lower one half step enharmonic pitches Circle of Fifths 5 pitches 3 pitches half step = semi-tone tritone major scale: W W H W W W H certain sharps/flats and starting note (tonic pitch) order of sharps
order of flats F C G D A E B B E A D G C F minor scale: W H W W H W W same sharps/flats as major scales
relative major/minor: different tonic pitch (4 half steps below major tonic pitch)
parallel major/minor: same tonic pitch, different keys EX: What is the relative major of A minor?
C Major tonic dominant leading tone tonic natural, harmonic, melodic A natural minor A harmonic minor raise the seventh note one half step # A melodic minor raise the sixth and seventh note ascending and lower them descending # # L L L L L L natural - returns the note to its original
pitch Form ^ 1 ^ 3 ^ 7 Scale Degrees of D Major Key Signatures supertonic subdominant Overtone series melody- successive pitches that seem to form a coherent whole - if two pitches occur together, it is either harmony or counterpoint counterpoint: independent melody lines
harmony: relationships between simultaneous pitches register- high, middle, low parts of a range tessitura- range within which most notes fall measures - aka bars, groups of beats bar lines - divides measures downbeat- strong beat anacrusis "pickup"
mixed meter, irregular/asymmetrical meter- variations on the grouping of beats
polymeter- two or more meters operating simultaneously
polyrhythm- aka cross-rhythm, two conflicting rhythmic patterns are present simultaneously (3 vs 2, 4 vs. 3)
syncopation- accented or emphasized notes fall on weak beats or in between beats Chords three or more simultaneous pitches triads- chord with two intervals of thirds

inversions- moving of any pitch of a triad major, minor, diminished, augmented M3 m3 Eb Major
root position b b first
inversion harmonic progression (cadences) a series of chords or intervals that move from tension (dissonance) to resolution (consonance) I minor triads- two minor third intervals predominant harmonies- "pull" to the dominant Eb Major I V I (Perfect) Authentic Plagal G Major vi IV I voice leading-
chords inverted
three chords as three horizontal layers, each layer is relatively conjunct and easy to sing
because most Western music written for voice 5 ^ 1 ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ bass line b b second
inversion c minor augmented ii iii vi vii ii iii vi vii ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 2 4 5 6 8 FORM RHYTHM PITCH peremennost (alternation) an oscillation between relative major and minor; analogous to a feature of Russian folk music Eb
Major time signature
beat unit- eighth notes
4 beats (3 eighth notes=one beat)
compound meter tempo beats per min anacrusis dynamic
marking sweet, expressive crescendo slur legato staccato measure bar line tonic first
inversion second
inversion diatonic- within the key chromatic- outside the key diminished M3 on top of m3 M3 M3 Russians composer used plagal to make their music sound more Russian dominant seventh
chord modal mixture- aka borrowed chord from the parallel key transpose- shift key of a piece or melody
arranging/arrangement- modifying a piece for other instruments
modulate- change keys in a harmony
use accidentals to make V7 of new key and resolve it with new tonic
instrumentation- what instrument(s) were used in a given pice
timbre- distinct texture and sound produced by certain instruments atonal music- no tonal center (no specific key) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5a/Schoenberg_-_%22George_Lieder%22_Op._15-1_end.mid tonal music- has a tonal center (a specific key) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/IV-V-I_in_C.mid Around 1910- Arnold Schoenberg- "emancipation of dissonance" 1925- Schoenberg developed a new system for determining pitch relationships "tone row" - basis for melodies, motives, bass lines, and chords consists of all 12 chromatic pitches twelve tone method non-functional harmonies using familiar chords without resolving them (Debussy and Stravinsky) weird modern music redefining music and noise whole tone scale unusual scales usage
of including pentatonic, whole-tone, and octatonic scales polytonality two different keys played simultaneously Textures monophony- just a melody
heterophony- same melody, not in unison (most common texture in Russian folk music)
polyphony- multiple independent lines homophonic- melody + accompaniment
polyphonic- two+ melody lines simultaneously counterpoint developed after 1350 to create polyphony dynamics cresc dim articulation mechanics of starting and ending a sound
how you play it staccato
pluck marcato
accent, sharp tenuto
stressed ornamentation
(turn) meter- pattern of emphasis on groups of beats duple > u > u > u > u
triple > u u > u u > u u
irregular two beats per measure
three beats per measure
four+ beats per measure simple- beat is divided into two equal parts
compound- beat is divided into three equal parts 2 beats per measure, 2 divisions: duple-simple
3 beats per measure, 3 divisions: triple-compound Meter beats per measure value of
beat note time signature- indicates meter repetition- repeating musical material using identical or similar pitches, rhythms, and harmonies
sequence- musical idea (two measures or less) repeated at different pitch level variation- repetition with alterations
theme and variations- (A A' A'' A''' A'''', etc)
changing-background variations- "Glinka variations"- melody is unchanged while other accompanied elements vary
twelve bar blues- 12 measure chord progression repeated, with variations in melodic material
improvisation- spontaneous variations on a melody contrast
ternary form- aka ABA form- simplest form using contrast; each is section is self-contained and ends with authentic cadence
rondo form- ABACABA or ABACA
32-bar form- AABA- each section consists of two four-bar phrases fugue- composition technique with a theme (fugue subject) developed with counterpoint
countersubject- companion theme
imitation- approximate repetition of a melodic idea at a different pitch (Idea #2)
sonata form- exposition, development, recapitulation (aka first movement form)
exposition- beginning- first idea in the tonic key then changes key
transition- modulation to new key (dominant) characterized by tension
development- harmonically unstable and exploratory; sense of struggle; ends in half-cadence
recapitulation- order is restored; almost a repetition exposition except Idea #2 is in tonic key movements- sections of a sonata (sonata cycle) contour- profile of melodies conjunct melody- moves smoothly, stepwise (by half steps and whole steps) disjunct melody- has larger intervals (larger than M2)
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