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Burial in Ancient Egypt and Today
Transcript of Burial in Ancient Egypt and Today
always bury their dead. If you were rich when you died, you would be buried in a valley, different types of pyramids, or in burial chambers.
If you died poor, you would be buried
under a pile of rocks. Mummification There are two processes
of mummification. The first process
is embalming. There are 12 steps. The body is washed with palm wine.
The body is rinsed off with water from the Nile River. On the left side of the body, a cut is made.
Then the internal organs (the liver, the stomach, the lungs, the small intestine, and the large intestine) are removed.
Next, the brain is removed. A long hook is inserted through the nose and will pull the brain out. Egyptians didn't know what the brain was for, so they took it out. Next, the body is stuffed and covered with natron. (That was known as the drying stage.)
Wait forty days for the body to dry.
The body will be washed with water from the Nile River (again).
The body is covered with sweet smelling oils.
The body is stuffed with dry things, such as linen, sawdust, and leaves.
Then the body is covered with more oils. Last, the internal organs are put into canopic jars. Canopic Jars There were four canopic jars
containing either the intestines,
lungs, liver, or stomach. Each jar
had a head of one of the four sons
of Horus. (Horus was the god of the
sky, sun, and moon.) Duamutef: contained the
stomach and was protected
by the goddess Neith. (Neith
was the water goddess.) Qebehsenuef: contained
the intestines and was
protected by the goddess
Selket. (Selket was the
goddess of healing bites
and stings.) Hapi: contained the
lungs and was protected
by the goddess Nephthys.
(Nephthys was the excellent
goddess or useful goddess.) Imseti: contained the liver
and was protected by the
goddess Isis. (Isis was the
goddess of magic, motherhood,
and fertility.) Now the person being mummified
is ready for the second process which
is wrapping. There are 18 steps. The head and neck are wrapped.
The toes and fingers are wrapped.
The legs and arms are wrapped.
The sacred amulet is placed. (The sacred amulet is the tyet, also known as the Isis knot. ) The origin of the sacred amulet is unknown. Spells form the Book of the Dead are read. The spells served a range of purposes. Some spells are intended to identify the dead person with the gods, or maybe even to give the dead person mystical knowledge for the afterlife. The arms and legs are tied together.
A scroll is placed between the hands of the deceased . The rest of the body is wrapped. The body is painted with liquid resin (glue).
A cloth with Osiris painted on it is wrapped around the body. (Osiris is the god of the Afterlife, underworld, and the dead.) A large cloth is wrapped around the body.
Linen stripes are wrapped around the body to hold the body in place. The mummy is put in a first coffin.
The mummy is put in a second coffin.
The funeral is held. The opening of the mouth ceremony is preformed. (The opening of the mouth ceremony is a ritual that ancient Egyptians believed. They believed magic opened the mouth of the dead person so they can speak and breathe.) Anubis was the god of the
dead and embalming. He
was believed to watch over
the process of mummification.
The mummy is put into the sarcophagus. A sarcophagus is a stone coffin. Last, the mummy is put into its final resting place, which is the tomb. It depended whether you were rich or poor when you died for where you would be buried. Modern Egypt Today, most Egyptians are Muslims. If you are a Muslim, there are
burial rituals that must be
preformed when you die. Burial rituals should normally take place as soon as possible after the Muslim person dies. There are 5 steps. The dead body is bathed, except in extraordinary circumstances.
The dead body is wrapped in linen cloth or white cotton.
Then there is the funeral prayer. The funeral prayer is a prayer for the deceased always said by a male.
The body is buried in a grave.
The dead body is positioned so that the head faces towards Mecca. Mecca is a city that is regarded as the holiest in all of Islam.
More than 13 million Muslims visit Mecca annually.