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3.1 Plantae Kingdom

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Melissa Yu

on 11 December 2012

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Transcript of 3.1 Plantae Kingdom

Introduction What Are Plants? All modern day plants are decedents of aquatic plants.
To survive on land plants adapted :
- embryos, the plants reproductive system
- the ability to stand up right and as tall as possible to absorb sun light
- tissues to transport water, waste and nutrients
- strategies to reduce water loss
- the ability to disperse reproductive structures without water currents the grass in backyards, moss on rocks, carnivorous plants, vines, and trees are all part of the plant kingdom
there are more than 250,000 species of plants on earth
they first appeared in the Ordovician period in the Paleozoic era 488.3 million years ago
grow in soil, on other plants, float on the ocean's surface, and take root deep below the ocean floor land dwelling organisms that require optimal temperature and amounts of water, minerals, nutrients, soil, sunlight, and atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen
most plants are autotrophs, however, parasites obtain nutrition from other organisms 3.1 Plantae Kingdom By: Leanne Grosbeck, Julia Pia, Tim Yantsis, Melissa Yu & Stefanie Zaremba Green Algae - Modern Relatives of Plant Ancestors Ferns and Relatives - Seedless Vascular Plants Rely on vascularisation (formation of tubes to carry fluid throughout organism) to obtain the necessary nutrients.
The phyla that seedless vascular plant are divided into are:
1. Ferns 2. Club mosses 3. Horsetails
Sperms are also flagellated.
Sporophyte is the dominant fern generation.
The brown dots found on underside of mature fern leaves (fronds) are made of many spore capsules. (Each capsule releases large number of tiny haploid spores that drift down to ground and grow to gametophytes. Seed Plants - Gymnosperms are plants that bear naked seeds (not protected by the ovary)
Plants that contain seeds.
Seeds: plant embryos and food packaged in a protective coating.
Evolved from ferns and relatives only 365 million years ago.
Different then ferns in 2 ways: smaller gametophytes and pollen (allows sperm to reach egg to fertilize) Flowering Plants - Angiosperms Climate Change and Plants transpiration moves a large amount of water from the ground to the atmosphere
as plants transpire, they give off water vapour, which becomes precipitation
changes in plant growth and destruction of rainforests can alter precipitation and weather patterns
extensive deforestation can reduce rainfall so much that rainforests may not be able to re-establish themselves The Foundation of Ecosystems plants form the foundation of almost all ecosystems and provide essential products and services that sustain all life on Earth
they are the base of all food chains by converting sunlight into chemical energy that other organisms can ingest and use
provide food, fuel, fibre, and the basis for medications such as aspirin and morphine
plants release oxygen, cycle nutrients, and regulate ecosystem processes to clean the air, purify water, absorb carbon, and detoxify soil Reproductive Methods: 3 Key Characteristics of Plants:
Plants are eukaryotic
Plants have cell walls that contain the carbohydrate cellulose
Plants carry out photosynthesis, using the pigment chlorophyll to transform sunlight into chemical energy Evolution of Plants Alteration of Generations Most plants have a life cycle that switches between haploid and diploid form.
The haploid\diploid phases are distinct multicellular generations.
In some plants, the haploid individual is larger than the diploid individual.
Haploid generations produce egg and sperm cells (gametes) and is called the gametophyte.
Diploid generations produce spores and are called sporophyte.
These generations "take turns" with each other, at points they are diploids and others are haploids.
In mammals, the haploid stage is when they are a single sperm or egg cell, when they fuse they create a diploid called a zygote.
Plants reproduce through spores and gametes.
Spores and gametes differ in two ways:
1) Spores can develop into a new organism without fusing.
2) Spores of some plants have tough coats. The only algae found in the Plantae and not Protista due to its cell walls and photosynthetic process which other algae lack.
Found only in shallow freshwater, along edges of ponds and lakes.
Does not go through generation alterations. Mosses and Relatives - Seedless Non-vascular Plants The first group to diversify from their ancestors. Also called, "bryophytes."
Grow close to the ground in damp areas, so that they may obtain water easier, because they are unable to transfer nutrients through their bodies.
Do not have stems, or seeds. Do not have any rigid support structures and lack complexity.
More successful in survival than terrestrial plants due to their ability to endure long, dry periods.
The gametophytes are the dominant generation.
Their sperm and eggs are formed in separate structures.
Sperm are flagellated, and must swim through the water to fertilize the egg. Flowering plants with enclosed seeds.
Last to evolve only 135 million years ago. Rise of the angiosperms coincided with rise of the mammals, since they were a main food source.

Taxonomy for an Apple Tree:
K: Plantae
P: Angiosperm
C: Eudicots
O: Rosales
F: Rosaceae
G: Maleae
S: M. domestica Taxonomy of a Scots Pine:
K: Plantae
P: Pinophyta
C: Pinopsida
O: Cordaites
F: Pinaceae
G: PinusS:
S: P. sylvestris
Sepals: protect the flower when it was only a bud
Stamen: male reproductive part produces the pollen (anther and filament)
Carpel: female reproductive part contains the ovary where the seeds will be. (stigma, ovary)

Pollen is brought from an anther to a stigma by the wind (ie grasses), water (ie coconuts) or pollinators such as bees and humming birds.
Pollinators may be more attracted to certain angiosperms because of their flower size, shape, odor, texture or colour.
Once this happens the ovary swells, and the petals breakdown. The ovary becomes the fruit with the seed inside so therefore a fruit is only a mature ovary.
Animals then ingest this fruit, and the seeds do not break down while in the digestive tract. The seeds then pass through the body and land in new locations where another plant grows. Reproductive Methods: Sporophyte generation is more highly developed and recognizable then gametophyte generation.

Gymnosperms have cones: both male and female

Female: are cones that contain seeds, they have a wooden texture.
Contain the ovule
i.e. pinecones

Male: are cones that contain the pollen grains. They have a spongy texture. Make the pollen grains (small male gametophytes that carry the sperm)

Pollen is brought from the male cone to the female cone through the wind (pollen is airborne), which forms the seed.
Once fertilized and mature the female cones expand and seeds fall to the ground and grow into new plants. Alternation of Generations Evolution of Plants Major Groups of Plants green algae
mosses and relatives
ferns and relatives
seed plants
flowering plants Cladogram Activity Lab Activity 1) What species is this?
2) What major group does this plant belong to?
3) What derived characteristics does the plant consist of that makes them apart of their plant group?
4) Referring to your handout, explain how your flower reproduces.
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