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Title I Funding

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Caroline Dennis

on 23 November 2013

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Transcript of Title I Funding

A Case Study of 67 Title I Elementary Schools in
Orange County, Florida

In 2009, the U.S. spent $610.1 billion dollars on education. Over $14 billion of that money went to Title I.

The purpose of Title I funding is to eliminate the achievement gap, yet compared to white students, significant gaps for African-American and Hispanic students are evident in virtually every measure of achievement.

The U.S. consistently ranks behind the other major global powers in education.
Although public education is meant to be an equalizer, there are inconsistencies which create an achievement gap between high-poverty and low-poverty students.

Title I was created to help close that gap. However, there are discrepancies in how funding is spent at individual schools which brings into question the effectiveness of the program.

Orange County Public School District is the 11th school district in the nation and the 4th largest in Florida.
Evaluation Design
The independent variable is the distribution of funding between technology, personnel, professional development, and parental involvement. This is measured through the percentage of funding per category.

The dependent variable is school performance. This is measured through the school grade which is assigned to each school by the Florida Department of Education.

The population consists of the 67 Title I elementary schools in Orange County.

The sampling frame is the same as the population, which is the 67 Title I elementary schools in Orange County.
Survey Questions
1. List the amount of Title I funding your school receives.
2. Does your school have a specific Title I Funding Plan? Y/N? If yes, please explain.
3. To which of the following categories do you apply Title I funding (select all that apply):
a)Parental Involvement b)Professional Development c)Personnel d)Technology
4. What percentage of funding goes to each category?
5. Within the funding categories, list specific initiatives, programs, and events on which Title I funding is spent. (i.e. monthly parent night, smart boards, school nurse, etc.)
6. How do you determine which categories will receive funding?
7. What factors influence your decision making process when spending Title I money?
8. What evaluation techniques do you use to assess the effectiveness of the
initiatives, programs, and events that your school funds through Title I?
9. Do you believe the grade your school is assigned each year is an accurate representation of your school's performance? Please explain.
a)Strongly Agree b)Agree c)Neither Agree Nor Disagree d)Disagree e)Strongly Disagree
Funding distribution will make a difference in overall school performance based on the flexibility provided to Orange County Public School Title I elementary administrators when allocating their Title I funding.

School administrators that spend a greater portion of their Title I funds on parental involvement will achieve higher student performance.

Low performing schools will spend a significant amount of their funds on personnel.
Literature Review
Title I was created under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to help children escape poverty by supplementing state educational budgets.

Funding eligibility is determined by each state's Census data regarding the number of poor children between the ages of 5 and 17. State education agencies then appropriate the funds to school districts based on the number of school children from low-income families. Title I funding can be spent by schools in the following categories:

1. Parental Involvement
2. Professional Development
3. Personnel
4. Technology
Research Questions
Does the flexibility in Title I spending impact school performance?

How do the 67 Title I elementary schools in Orange County, Florida allocate Title I funding?

What distribution of Title I funds yields the best school performance?
Problem Statement
The purpose of this study is to compare the use of Title I funds at high-performing and low-performing elementary schools in Orange County, Florida. Surveys will be used to measure the relationship between categories of funding and school performance. In addition, the breakdown of Title I funds will be explored by utilizing a survey of the distribution of Title I funds with administrators at the 67 Title I elementary schools in Orange County. The reason for combining both qualitative and quantitative data is to better understand this research problem by converging both broad numeric trends and detailed views.
Evaluation Design
We will use online surveys distributed to school administrators, as well as secondary data collected by the Florida Department of Education.

The data collection methods utilized make this study both valid and reliable. The secondary data was gathered from the Florida Department of Education. The primary data will be collected by surveying school administrators. Because both of these sources of information are reliable, the conclusions drawn about the correlations between the two data sets will be valid.

After coding the data, we will use a case-oriented analysis to judge our hypotheses.
Literature Gap
The majority of literature surrounding Title 1 funding focuses on comparing performance between Title I schools and non-Title I schools.

Further research is needed on the specific spending patterns amongst Title I schools given the performance discrepancies between the schools that receive funding.
The Effects of Title I Funding
Distribution on
School Performance:

Why should you care?
Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Purpose of Title I
Structure of Title I
Literature Review
While countless evidence supports the upward battle Title I schools face to try and close the achievement gap, research also identifies methods high-poverty Title I schools can utilize to attain high academic success.

Although research shows there are many factors that can contribute to high academic achievement within Title I schools, we believe that parental involvement will prove to be most valuable to both the student and the school.
Performance Discrepancies
Parental Involvement
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Data Collection Method
Validity and Reliability
Data Analysis
Caroline Dennis, Kate Matsia, Stephanie Metzger & Jessica Ward
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