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Transcript of IGCSE ICT
- Physical components that make up the computer.(Keyboard,Mouse...)
-Programs that control the computer system.(System software,Operating software, Application Software.
Central processing Unit. Carries out software instructions.(Microprocessors)
Internal hard drive-
Computes main memory. Where computer software/ disk operating system and data files are stored.
Section 1: Types and components of computer system.
TYPES OF COMPUTER
Out Put Devices
Hardware devices that allow information to be input into a computer.
Hardware device that allow information to be output from a computer.
Section 2: Input and Output Data
MANUAL INPUT DEVICES
Aromatic input Devises
Main components of general-purpose computer:
- Random Access Memory. Data is temporarily stored, when running applications. Write to and Read from. Its Volatile "Temporarily stored"
ROM- Store Information that needs to be permanent, and can not be altered. Only READ from and not lost when power is turned off.NON-Volatile.Boot File
BIOS-Basic Input/Output System.Stores Date/Time
CMOS.- Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor=Battery Power
Enables user to communicate with computer system.Controlling,supervision,Dealing with errors ans maintaining computer.
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE
= Typing in command. User in direct contact with computer.
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
= Built around graphical/visual things. Through icons, simple selection, that executes all steps.Use Cursor.
General purpose computer. Made of spare monitors. IBM compatible.
= Parts are cheap
Good dissipation of heat.
D= Not portable
All parts in one.
Low power consumption
D=Easy to steel
Low battery life
Personal Digital Assistant, Small handhold computer.Personal organisers, Data loggers and satellite.
D=Difficult to enter text
Large, powerful computer system.
Run commercial application( BANKING,INSURANCE) made up of several CPU.Multiple operating system
A=Do large Jobs
Time sharing system
Can deal with complex math
D= Need large room
expensive to buy and maintain/operate
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ICT
Store documents/programs/Data in the internet.
Save Space on computer
Create,Edit and Share files
Digital version of traditional printed publication
Data Can be entered: Manually-Data entered by hand
Automatically-data entered by machine
fast entry of text, easy
Limited arm/wrist movement.
Enter Numbers only!
Fast and easy to carry
No letters so no mistake.
small keys difficult.Bad for text
Control the pointer.
faster selection than typing
Restrict hand/wrist movement
Easy to damage
Hard to use if no flat surface
Used in application where user has a disability.
can use when no flat surfaces
more difficult to get use to.
moving the stick controls the ointer.Less desktop space.
Buttons for selection
Use in 3D dimension
uses infra red
ns for sel
from a di
vement, can work if passa
ge is bloc
There is no film, so its
and fast to upload.Images
enhanced and are better
They are expensive to buy, need computer to.
scanned by light source produce a digital
t images at later date. faster than typing a
can be low, and take up disk space
Sound input in.ADC used.
Faster to read than type.edit sound.
Uses up memory, not very accurate, leads to errors.
Magnetic Strip Reader
A=fast entry.error free.secure.
D=If damaged, loss of all data. need magnetic card to read. small storage.
CHIP AND PIN READER
Put card in slot.
cant use it.
The (A=) means Advantages
The (D=) means Disadvantages.
Optical Mark Reader
inputting pencil marks and reading them and inputting them into computer.
Bar Code Reader
Inputting code numbers from products through POS terminal...
A=Fast,Central Base database gets updated. Auto-stock control.
D= expensive and not Fool Proof!
TYPES OF PRINTERS:
A=high quality image, better angle of viewing, cheaper
D=heavy,consume a lot of power, flicker(headache)
A=lighter,less glare,consume less power,less radiation
D=Unclear image,Poor quality;angle is critical, Cant use with light pens.
MULTI MEDIA PROJECTOR
Receive signals, use remote control, source image is magnified and projected.
A=Many can see presentation/ enhance experience
D=Fuzzy image/expensive/difficult to set up.
Connect to computer, monitor DAC, Output Sou!
They are expensive.
A=High quality had copy, Use buffer memory, fast, Used where Noise levels need to be low. Print a lot-fast
D=expensive,only fast for producing loads,produce ozone layer gases
A=output is high quality, cheaper,lighter,not produce ozone gas
D=slower,Not large prints,Ink smudges,Expensive to run.
DOT MATRIX PRINTER
Slow,noisy, useful for continuous printing.
Used in noisy places. unaffected by dust
produce large, accurate prints(posters)
Types of Storage devices
Why Back up Data?
hackers delete it
Accidental delete it
Fixed hard disk(DIRECT)
=Store operating systems,software,working data.Online and real time processes.
A=Fast Read,Huge capacity,Easy to upload/delete files.
D= can be damaged easily
= Backup file servers,Batch processing.
A=Robust,Less Expensive,Large storage
Mediums that use light to read/write info. Stored in number of dots.Read by laser beam.
CD/DVD ROM - (Read Only)
CD/DVD R - (Recordable once)
CD/DVD RW -(Record endlessly
DVD RAM -(Writing and Reading at same time
smallest form of memory, used as removal storage. Most expensive and roust. Easily written to and read from.
= When we put data into a known place, which e can come back to at a later date.
Backing Storage Media
= Internal or External device that stored data temporarily or permanently.
= Using storage devices to copy files and data to a different storage medium
SECTION 3:storage devices and Media
SECTION 4: COMPUTER NETWORKS
What is a computer network?
Two or more computers connected together to exchange data, share files, use cables, Store data centrally, communicate, and share resources.
Vulnerable to hackers,network break and viruses
LAN= Local Area Network (within small area)
WAN= Wide Area Network (join several LAN)
WLAN(Wireless Local Area Network
Types of network
Why use internet
mini-multi player games
voice and Video
Preventing unauthorized access
Use user name/password
Easy to add new PC
Cheap to install
Does not need hub
If one n, they all go down
easy to identity problems
all stay connected if one breaks
if central down, they all go down.
Work well under y load
Difficult to add new PC
Connection of star network
Connects two or more LAN to make a WLAN
direct data packets to specific computer
Broadcast data packets to computer in a LAN
Enable computers to connect to a network
Modulates data and demodulates phone signals.
WHATS NEEDED TO SET UP SMALL NETWORK?
Wireless Access Point
SECTION5: Data Types
collection of records and field name
set of date in a table/row
=unique field in record
= all data in 1 table
= use 2 tables linked together.(benifts are duplicate data is reduced, quicker to update and quicker to enter data.
= use values that change very smoothly
= jumps from one value to another in step by step sequence.
SECTION 6:The effects of using ICT
HACKING= Breaking into a computer system
VIRUS= program that replicated itself and is designed to damage a computer system.
causes: downloading infected files
Memory sticks with virus
What happens? cause computer to crash, loss of files,corruption of data.
Computer infected by:
PHISHING: through the use of emails, gather personal and financial info.
PHARMING: Code installed on users hard disk/server, misdirect to fraudulent websites. By email or installing bad software.
SPYWARE: Through network connection
COOKIES: Store info on user on web.
Effect of ICT on Employers
fewer are needed
atomatation in factories
decrease need for labour intensive workers
need for emplyes to be trained frequently.
Loss of Jobs:
Robots replace humans
Manual repetative jobs
Gain of Jobs:
network managing and technician
SECTION7: The Ways In Which ICT In Used
Communication Application( Newsletter/flyers/magazine)
Data Handling(data is input and stored before output, survey result)
: number of similar jobs collected together all processed all at onxe, takes a long time(Bills,Payroll)
: Users communicate directly with computer, and carried out immediately
: Use sensors rather than humans.
Application for publicity:
Application in Banking:
Applications in Retail Industry:
AUTO-RE ORDERING STOCK
Application in Manufacturing Industries
Robots(controlled through microprocessors, program with sequence of instructions, and do series of tasks.Equiped with sensors.
EXPERT SYSTEM: computer software that acts like a human expert in a particular subject