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How Does Glacier Movement Affect Earth's Surface

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Jordan Johnson

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of How Does Glacier Movement Affect Earth's Surface

This project is pertaining to how glaciers affect the Earth's surface. Glaciers are massive bodies of ice that move across the Earth's surface like rivers, and as they move they wear away at loose rocks and soil and depositing them to another area. They usually move along rivers, oceans, and other bodies of water. I am working to figure out in which temperature(hot or cold) will a glacier most likely move the fastest.
The results of this experiment proved my hypothesis to be accurate. The fake glacier did move the flour along the paper towel as a real glacier would to soil. Then I will subject each glacier to different temperatures by putting one outside and the other in the refrigerator. Every five minutes I will record how far each glacier has moved.

Abstract
How Does Glacier Movement Affect Earth's Surface
The purpose of my experiment was to determine if glaciers at which temperatures will glaciers have the most effect on the earth's surface. My hypothesis is : If a glacier is subjected to a significant increase in temperature then it will move faster and change the topography of the land. The independent variable of this experiment is the size and weight of ice and the temperature, and the dependent variable is the amount of time it takes for each glacier to move and how far each glacier moves.
Introduction
Not only do glaciers, transport materials as they move, but they can also sculpt and carve the land beneath them which is called glaciation. A glaciers weight combined with its progressive movement can drastically reshape Earth's landscape over hundreds and thousands of years. The ice erodes the land's surface and carries deposits of sediment and debris from their original places resulting in unique and interesting glacial forms. An example of a glacial formation is The Matterhorn in Switzerland which displays three types of glacial erosion : Cirques, Aretes, and Horns.
Research
The materials I used were one cup of frozen ice, 3-12x9 inches sheets of paper towels, 12x9 inch sheet of tin foil, and three cups of flour.

-Freeze a cup of water overnight
-Take water out after thirteen hours
-Lay 12x9 sheets of three paper towels and tin foil of the same length and width onto counter top
-Pour three cups of flour onto sheets
-Begin by moving the ice along flour and watch how ice cuts a valley into the flour

Materials and Procedures
I concluded that warm temperatures increase the movement of a glacier significantly, so my hypothesis was proven correct. In my experiment the glacier outside in the heat moved faster and to the greatest length than the glacier in the refrigerator.
Analysis, Results, and Conclusion

Aretes- a thin almost knife like ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys.
Cirques- a bowl shaped depression on the side of or near mountains.
Debris- loose natural material consisting especially of broken pieces of rock.
Disintegrate- break up into small parts, typically as a result of impact or decay.
Erosion- the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
Horns- results when glaciers erode three or more aretes, usually forming a sharp-edged peak.
Glaciation- the process, condition, or result of something being covered by glaciers or ice sheets.
Glacier- large thickened ice masses made of fallen snow which fell over a course of years.
Global Warming- the observed gradual rise in the average temperature around the world.
Soil- a mixture of broken rocks, minerals, and decaying organic matter.

Glossary of Terms
The experiments shows how glaciers affect the Earth. Glaciers can either be helpful by providing fresh bodies of water to areas which then creates life and food sources; or they can be harmful by creating dams which can trap large amounts of water. With more attention given to earth's climate increase, my experiment also demonstrated how melting glaciers can lead to increasing sea levels. This can also have negative effects on animals, weather, and the earth as a whole.
Application
I would like to thank Jennifer Fausett for being an exception teacher and assigning this interesting assignment because it motivated me to discover and learn independently.

I would also like to thank my mother, Kima Brown for helping me with the photography and to gather materials.
Acknowledgments
Reference List and Annotated Bibliography #4
"What is a glacier?" National Snow and Ice Data Center. National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2014. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.
Glaciers are made up of fallen snow that, over many years, compresses into large, thickened ice masses. Glaciers form when snow remains in one location long enough to transform into ice. What makes glaciers unique is their ability to move. Due to sheer mass, glaciers flow like very slow rivers. Some glaciers are as small as football fields, while others grow to be dozens or even hundreds of kilometers long.

Presently, glaciers occupy about 10 percent of the world's total land area, with most located in polar regions like Antarctica, Greenland, and the Canadian Arctic. Glaciers can be thought of as remnants from the last Ice Age, when ice covered nearly 32 percent of the land, and 30 percent of the oceans. Most glaciers lie within mountain ranges that show evidence of a much greater extent during the ice ages of the past two million years, and more recent indications of retreat in the past few centuries.
Reference List and Annotated Bibliography #1
Davies, Gill, and Ste C. P. De. Latin America: The Beauty, the Magic - Take a Journey of a Lifetime!Bath: Parragon, 2009. Print. N.p., n.d. Print.
The Andes Mountains is a massive range extending from Panama to the tip of South America with a vast number of glacial ice sheets formed millions of years ago. Also, melting glaciers from the Cordillera Blanca provides Peru with majority of its water supplies where 80% of its power is dependent on hydroelectricity. Glaciers also "feed mighty waterfalls"(Davies 121) that move into thick forests below. In these warm climates, a glacier will most likely to move faster.
Reference List and Annotated Bibliography #3
Mcdougal Littell Textbooks. "Unit 1 : Earth's Waters : Chapter 2. The Water Planet." ClassZone. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing, 2008. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.
A glacier forms in a cold region when more snow falls than melts each year. As the snow builds up, its weight presses the snow on the bottom into ice. On a mountain, the weight of a heavy mass of ice causes it to flow downward, usually slowly. On flatter land, the ice spreads out as a sheet. As glaciers form, move, and melt away, they shape landscapes. They can only exist in cold regions of the world where it is cold enough for water to stay frozen year round.
Reference List and Annotated Bibliography #2
"Glaciers and climate change." National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2014. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.
Global warming can make glaciers virtually disappear because they are very sensitive to temperature fluctuations accompanying climate change. Many glaciers have been moving rapidly or have been vanishing because or the rise in temperature. The heat can speed up the glaciers movement making water-filled fractures carve through an ice shelf which eventually disintegrates in the process.
Because temperature decreases with altitude (it is colder up the mountain), when ice flows down it also
starts melting faster. If an environmental change causes the glacier to flow faster, more ice will be moved to the melt-region, and the glacier will melt faster.
Analysis, Results, and Conclusions (Second Slide)
The procedures for my experiment was to pour 1 cup of water in an average size cup and freeze it overnight approx. thirteen hours. After taken the frozen water from the freezer, I laid three sheets of Great Value paper and tin foil onto a counter before pour five cups and soil onto it before moving the ice along the flour.
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