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Transcript of Chinese Architecture
Canals, Sewers, and City Planning
Statues and Sculptures
Chinese Ritual Bronzes
You vessel from early Zhou Dynasty, Part of Shanghai Museum collection
Tomb of lady Fu Hao
Shang and Zhou Dynasties
1766 BC-256 BC
221 BC-206 BC
Unearthed in Emperor, Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum
Western and Eastern Han Dynasty
A , , , and monks' rooms are distributed along the central axis. Unlike the paintings and decorations in Christian churches which present a heavenly afterlife, Chinese Buddhist temples reveal an atmosphere closer to .
: symbol of Buddhism, where people climb to have a bird's-eye-view, they are often built in temples. Pagodas can be made of stone, , colored glaze . Pagodas have an odd number of layers. and pagodas are commonly built. The shape of cross-section is rectangular, eight-sided or even circular.
Introduction to Buddhism
Taoist temples of different scales are scattered all over China. Generally, they can be divided into three kinds:
and , and simple or caves. Though of various sizes, they are built to serve the same function.
Taoism encourages human beings to live with nature. Most Taoist temples are built along a mountain side. Many of them are , which is believed to be beneficial to health.
Confucian temples are called in Chinese; they are famous for their large scale, rich cultural relic collection and their
As well, the Confucian temples have different in
in different places.
Inside the temple there are stone tablets positioned on either side of the front courtyard, containing 51,624 names of (the advanced scholars) of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.
The materials and sizes of house varied between the poor and the rich, however there were basic steps that were used in both. For instance, all houses have a tendency to face south, offering protection from cold winds.
In most places if wood could be afforded and found, the wood was used to support the roof and frame the sides of the houses.
If wood was not available then earth was pounded into bricks that were then dried and used.
Clay was commonly used for roofing however in poor areas thatching -dry straw - or bamboo were used instead.
Structural joints weren't held together with nails, but rather with dowels and joinery, allowing the buildings to bend and stretch slightly, minimizing earthquake damage
Silk Road (2nd century BC to 14th century AD)
- The greatest trade route, is over 7,000 km long and has different routes.
-The Silk Road got it's name from trading silk as the main cargo on this route and was named by a German geographer, Richthofen (1877).
-Zhang Qian opened up the Silk Road during the Han dynasty until the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty.
Buddhism originated in
Brought to China along
Sculptors began creating and carving
: both have attained
but only one continues in a
cycle of rebirth
widely used for
common uses for:
characteristic feature of vessels:
-motif consisting of
First Qin Emperor
Meant to depict
former royal armies
Emperor in afterlife
The Great Wall of China
-In the 11th Century BC-223 BC the Chu state were first to build a wall, followed after by Qi, Yan, Wei, Zhao and Qin.
- Seven powerful state in China built walls and borders to defend themselves from the Mongolians.
-In 221 BC Emperor Qin Shihuang conquered the six states and became the first unified kingdom in Chinese history. Then the six walls were later connected and expanded by Qin.
-5,500 miles long and soldiers, common people and criminals built the wall and many died during the making of the wall.
-The wall was built on and off for many centuries until the 1500s.
Zhaozhou Bridge (595-609 AD)
-Also named Anji Bridge is located in the center of the Zhaozhou Bridge park.
-This bridge was the first "open spandrel" and the next open spandrel bridge was 1100 years later.
-The span of the bridge is 64.4 meters and has a width of 9 meters.
-Li Chun of the Sui dynasty built this bridge not only for transportation but also to show the Chinese art work by carving wishes and other decorations.
-Still in used today.
Inspiration and Legacy
There was an unwritten body of rules for planning cities and buildings that governed the orientation, colour, and location of any building. These rules stemmed partially from a philosophy of design embracing proportions and harmony and nature, called “feng-shui.”
Towns were laid out in grid form, with the main street running north/south and minor streets running east/west. Since almost 6000 BC, Chinese houses have generally had doors facing south to avoid the cold winds from the north.
The Grand Canal in China is the longest canal in the world. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BCE, and all the various sections were combined around the 6th century AD. It was originally commissioned for trading purposes, but is now a major tourist attraction. This canal is the earliest known example of the pound lock.
There are reports of the Chinese using ceramic pipelines as early as 1000 BC. As well, a flush toilet was discovered in the tomb of a Chinese king dating back almost 2000 years.
The use of rammed earth as a foundation was around in the early Neolithic period and has been an element of Chinese construction for several thousand years.
Superstition has been the main driving force behind Chinese architectural design. Many elements of traditional architecture arose from methods of keeping away evil spirits.
The load-bearing timber frame, held together with interlocking wooden supports, is considered China's greatest contribution to worldwide architectural technology.
Lady Fu Hao= wife of King
only tomb still
out of Shang royal family
burial tomb contained over
In the century, Chinese Buddhists began to build grottoes. Grottoes are decorated with , carvings and frescos. Craftsmen revealed real life pictures and their understanding of society in these art works, which gave them great historical and cultural value. The four famous grottoes in China are: , Longmen Grottoes , and Maiji Caves.
Buddha Statues in Maiji Caves, Tianshui
White Horse Temple, Luoyang, Henan
Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian
Dacheng Hall, Confucius Temple, Qufu
Dai Temple, Tai'an, Shangdong