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Transcript of Early Human
Have you ever had the thought of who came before you?
Perhaps you're thinking of your great grandparents or family members from earlier generations.
But have you thought of who lived thousands or even millions of years ago?
Someone you possibly haven't heard of...
Someone you will never get to know...
They are very interesting yet majestic creatures, since it is impossible to time travel we dig up fossils and guess what they looked like, what they ate, and how they survived. But we don't have solid evidence if they actually did certain things in a certain way.
They are divided in to four different major groups.
The first group of people were...
They were first found in a place called Olduvai Gorge,Africa. A steep-sided valley that is over 100m deep, with seven layers of rock. That has many fossils in it. One day, two british people decided to dig up some fossils in the area. But in 1959, they came across an almost complete human skull, that is about 1.75 million years old! Their names were Mary, and Louis Leaky. Louis Leakey came up with the name Homo Habilis. "Homo" meaning man, and "Habilis" meaning handy in Latin, hence The Handy Man. The word Handy Man came because they were the first human to use tools.
The second group of people were...
But How Exactly Have We Changed With All The Time That Has Passed By?
It is believed that they made their shelter out of branches, and they could only live in warm places because they didn't know how to make clothes or fire for warmth. They ate plants, birds egg, wild berries, raw meat, nuts, and roots. It has been estimated that they existed for 1,750,000 to 800,000 years ago.
Homo Habilis was about 1.5m tall, and walked in a hunched over position. They had a long flat head with a small brain, compared to modern humans today.
Homo Erectus, meaning "Upright Man" in Latin,was first found in the tropical island of Java, Indonesia. They were very similar to Homo Habilis.
They were still 1.5 m tall,but they stood in a more upright position. They had thick eyebrow ridges, with hardly any chin.
Homo Erectus were the first to make fire, but not clothes. Fire allowed them to live in colder places, protect themselves against wild animals, cook their food, and give them light. Scientists think that they might have grabbed a burning branch off a tree, that had been hit by lightening. But gradually, people started to make fire by rubbing sticks together. Also, since they have the ability to live in colder climates, they started to move to different places. Fossils of Homo Erectus have been found in England, Germany, parts of Africa, and Asia.
Homo Erectus improved their tools and learned how to work in a group, strategized a plan, and attacked animals.They used bones and rocks to make flint in to blades for cutting, and put them on wooden sticks to make spears. By doing so, it makes hunting more efficent.
With better hunting tools and the use of fire, their variety of food was a lot better then Homo Habilis. They can hunt bigger animals, and cook their meat, and they also ate many different types of plants. Also, the people used caves for shelters. Homo Erectus existed for 1,250,000 to 250,000 years ago.
The third group of people were...
Neanderthal Man was named after where they were first discovered in Neanderthal (Neander Valley), Germany, 1856.
Like Homo Erectus, Neanderthal Man also ate cooked meat and lived in caves. But they were the first to make clothes, out of animal hides that were dried after the meat was scraped off the skin. Also it is shown in fossils that the people would bury their family members when they passed away.
Neanderthal Man's weapons have advanced a lot from Homo Erectus's. A chipped rock can be made into knives, borers, and spear-sharpeners. Which makes hunting for food much easier.
Neanderthal people thought that keeping a bears skull would bring them good luck.
Neanderthal Man was taller then Homo Erectus by 6cm They still had thick eyebrow ridges.
The people lasted about 130,000 to 30,000 years ago.
Cromagnon Man was also named after where they were first discovered, Cro-magnon, France.
The fourth group of people were...
Unlike the other groups, Cro-magnon people were very creative and skillful. They would paint the walls of their caves, because they thought it would bring good luck. It was made from rock-powder and animal fat for paint and animal hair tied to bone were used for brushes. The greatest discovery of their paintings was in France, 1940. A cave called Lascaux cave was discovered by some children when they were chasing a dog. The dog went into a small hole, and the children followed. To be surprised by, not only a cave but rows of paintings of animals, and hunting scenes kept in perfect condition for thousands of years.
Cro-magnon people made the best tool compared to the other groups. They used flint to make sharp blades that could be used as chisels, knives and spear-points. They also made needles, fish-hooks and barbed harpoon heads. With all these tools, hunting life was better then any other past groups.
Cro-magnon people ate meat, wild plants and fish. But after the last ice age, which was about 10,000 years ago the earth started to warm up. So more and more plants grew, and the people started to notice that when a seed is planted it grows into plants and makes more seeds, then farming began. People started to stayed in one area longer. They grew barley, oats, rice, beans, and sunflower.
They also made better clothing then any other group. Their clothes were still made from animal skin, but they sewed it together. For a accessory, they made necklaces out of shells and animal teeth.
Cro-magnon man were about 2m tall when they are adults, and their brains were around the same size as a modern human today. They had a high forehead and a very strong chin. If they were to speak, their vocal cords would be the same range as ours today.
Cro-magnon Man lasted 30,000 to 10,000 years ago.
Or in other words, how have we changed with time?
The answer to that is, we have grown in height, and our average body is more straightened.
We have also become A LOT smarter.