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Transcript of Carbon Capture
"DOE - Fossil Energy: DOE's Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Research Program." DOE - Fossil Energy: DOE's Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Research Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/sequestration/index.html>.
"Home." CCS Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://ccs-education.org/>.
"How Carbon Capture Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-capture.htm>.
"Oxy-fuel Combustion Systems." – The Carbon Capture & Storage Association (CCSA). N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ccsassociation.org/what-is-ccs/capture/oxy-fuel-combustion-systems/>.
"Post-Combustion Capture." ICO2N. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ico2n.com/what-is-carbon-capture/capture-basics/post-combustion-capture>.
"Pre Combustion." Pre Combustion. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://bellona.org/ccs/?id=38>.
ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_capture_and_storage What is Carbon Dioxide? Carbon dioxide (or CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas. It's produced by carbon released into the atmosphere from: burning carbon, burning organic compounds (contains carbon), and respiration. It is naturally present in the air (about 0.03%) and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis. CO2 is also one of the earth's greenhouse gasses, along with water vapor, methane, and others. Key Term The Greenhouse Effect: The trapping of the sun's warmth in our planet's lower atmosphere (the process of warming Earth so life can survive) due to the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere, which let sunlight come in but do not let heat out, much like a greenhouse. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) or Carbon Capture and Sequestration (seizure) is the process of trapping carbon dioxide at the source, transporting it to a storage location (usually deep underground) and isolating it. Hopefully one day we will be able to grab excess CO2 from the power plants, creating greener energy. Because we've added (and continue to add) more and more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere--because of human inventions like power plants and transportation vehicles--more heat is stored on Earth, which causes the temperature of the planet to slowly rise; this serious phenomenon is commonly known as, global warming. "Georgia Institute of Technology researchers think they have found a way to create a zero-emissions car -- one free of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions. They envision hydrogen-powered cars with onboard processors to separate the hydrogen and the CO2. The recycled hydrogen would continue powering the vehicle, while the CO2 would be stored in liquid form until its removal at a fueling station. Researchers are working on a long-term strategy where the car's engine would recycle the CO2 as well, creating a closed-loop system."
[source: Georgia Tech]. Using Carbon Capture for Emission-free Cars "It is the process of dramatically reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power generation and returning it underground into formations that have naturally trapped elements for millions of years."
"Carbon capture and storage is going to be the key to a future of prosperity and growth... It's as simple as that."
[Ross Garnaut] 1. Trap and separate the CO2 from other gases
2. Transport this captured CO2 to a storage location
3. Store that CO2 far away from the atmosphere (for example underground or deep in the ocean) Three Main Steps to
Carbon Capture (and Storage) 1. Trapping and Separating 2. Transporting 3. Storing The three basic ways of trapping carbon from a power plant are called post-combustion, precombustion, and oxy-fuel combustion. Post-combustion: The most common and widely used process. A solvent, usually chilled ammonia, separates the CO2 from the other gasses in the opening of the smoke stack. Then the pure amine gas is released into the atmosphere while the CO2 is transported somewhere else. Pre-combustion: This process is very similar to "post-combustion" but involves converting the fossil fuel into a synthesis gas (or syngas, which can be separated into CO2 and hydrogen) before being used. This hydrogen-rich gas can be used in power plants or cars, but will not give off any CO2. And lastly, almost all the remaining CO2 can be separated and removed. Oxy-fuel Combustion: This process creates burnable fuel using just oxygen (not just air.) First the nitrogen is removed, in an air purifier unit. It is then added with fuel into a boiler (combustion occurs) and creates steam which powers turbines, and the CO2 is cooled and ready to be transported. The method of transporting CO2 is currently by pipeline. And sometimes it is nessessary for it to be moved by a tanker or truck. These means have been used for decades and CO2 pipelines have become an existing part of the "U.S. infrastructure." Pipelines can exist almost anywhere from land to underwater, and can move CO2 in all three of its possible states: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid CO2, or dry ice, is not cost-effective to transport; pipelines most commonly transport carbon dioxide in its gaseous state, where it is pushed through the pipes by a compressor. There are more than 1,500 miles (2,414 km) of CO2 pipelines in the U.S. mostly used by companies transporting enhanced oil or gas. FUN FACT There are two known places to store CO2 -- underground and underwater. Underground Storage : The pressure deep underground causes CO2 to act much like a liquid. It can seep into spaces in porous rocks, and a large amount of CO2 can be stored in a relatively small space. Geological Sequestration is a variation of underground storage currently used by oil companies. It involves injecting CO2 into underground rock formations below the Earth's surface, where natural reservoirs have overlying rocks that form a seal, keeping the gas contained.
Basalt Storage: Researchers have found that when they inject CO2 into basalt, it eventually turns into limestone -- conveniently converting to rock. This method is still currently being tested as a viable solution. Underwater Storage: Still being experimented and studied for health risks and safety. Some experts claim that we can dump CO2 directly into the ocean -- as long as we send it at least 11,482 feet (3500 meters) deep under the surface. It is imagined that at these depths, the CO2 will become a "slushy" material that will sink to the ocean floor. But there is the possibility that the carbon dioxide might make its way back into the environment. FACT It is estimated, that the planet can store up to 10 trillion tons of carbon dioxide. This would allow 100 years of storage of ALL human-created emissions. [source: Science Daily] But we will, of course, live much longer than that! CONS While carbon capture cannot provide the whole answer- it can ans will be one of the means we use to make low-carbon electricity.
Can reduce the amount of GHG emission if we store CO2 in the ground
The world can fight climate change but only if it reduces its dependance in fossil fuels and renewable energy and methods, such as CCS, are safe cost effective solutions to cut emissions and save the climate.
CCS is the first step to reducing GHG emissions and transitioning to renewable fuel sources (it has been used safely and efficiently for decades) Instead of solving the GHG problem buying the CO2 underground is only a temperature solution.
"Delays the inevitable." Peter Montogue
Risk of leakage (returning to environment)
Doesn't directly reduce our use of fossil fuels (which will eventually run out, as will the room to store CO2,) which is the more pressing issue. We support the process of carbon capture, and feel that it could help reduce the amount of GHG emissions. Even as young people, we have been taught how important it is to take care of the environment, and how we each need to reduce our carbon footprint. Although there are many problems and unknowns facing CCS, we hope that in the near future they will be resolved, and that CCS will become a reliable method in reducing our negative impact on the earth. THE END