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The Rise of Nationalism and a World
Transcript of The Rise of Nationalism and a World
the World headed to WAR!!!
Rise of Nationalism
Nationalism - a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries
Crimean War: Coalition vs Russia (1853–56): France, UK and Ottomans declare war on Russia, over controversy concerning protectorate of Christians in Ottoman Empire.
Independence of Italy (1860): In Italian Wars of Independence, the Italians drive Austria (North) and Spain (South) out of Italy for good, leading to an independent Italy. Italian Nationalism had been on the rise since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, as they were weary of being subdivided under foreign rule. After initial defeats, the Revolutionary movement finally achieved its purpose with the support of France.
Formation of Austria-Hungary Empire (1867): After its defeat to the Prussians in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Austria - in its weakened condition - was forced to cede to the demands of the Hungary portion of its empire, and provide Hungary with equal status. Hungarian nationalism had been on the rise since the Napoleonic Wars, leading to protests. Austria compromised by establishing a dual monarchy, rather than risk a Hungarian war of independence which it was not prepared to wage in its weakened state.
Ottoman Empire Defeated in Russo-Turkish War (1878): The Ottoman Empire is defeated In the final of a series of wars with Russia over mutual expansionist ambitions. Russian captures the Khanates of Kokand, Bokhara and Khiva, expanding further into Central Asia. Russia seeks to take the place of the Ottomans in the Balkan region, bringing Serbia, Montenegro, Romania and Bulgaria under its control. However, the UK prevents this and most of the Balkan nations gain independence.
Note: Russo-Turkish War Effect on the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire is defeated In the final of a series of wars with Russia over mutual expansionist ambitions. The devastating defeat further weakened the Ottomans, and their ability to maintain their longstanding hold onto the Balkans. Upon their defeat in 1878, all Balkan nations were freed of Ottoman rule, with the exception of Albania, which voluntarily remained under Ottoman dominion due to the Muslim connection. Russia sought to take the place of the Ottomans in the region, bringing it under their control. However, the UK prevented this through a show of force, intending to strike a balance of power by prohibiting Russia from growing any more powerful.
Russian Defeat in Russo-Japanese War (1905): Russia lost this war to Japan, diminishing its strength greatly, especially in the eastern portion of its empire. Russian naval capacity was virtually extinguished. The defeat comes as great shock to entire world, as it is first time that an Asian power defeats an established European power in the modern era. Russia's poor performance in this war led to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Tsar Nicholas II is consequently pressured into establishing a representative parliament (Duma), but at the last moment, he ensured himself autocratic/veto powers over Duma, making it ineffectual in ensuring rights of general public.
First Balkan War - Ottoman Empire Loses More Territory (1912-13): The Slavic Balkan nations, aware of the weakened condition of the Ottoman Empire, initiate war to gain more Balkan lands from the Ottomans. The Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria) quickly achieved victory. The Ottoman Empire was driven completely out of Europe. But they could not agree on how to allocate the spoils of victory among themselves (especially Macedonia), leading to the Second Balkan War.
Second Balkan War - Bulgaria Loses More Territory (1913): Bulgaria was least satisfied with its gains from the First Balkan War, as it faced the greatest loss and sacrifice, since it was closest in proximity to the Ottoman Empire. However, Bulgaria was also the most weakened, and the other nations in the Balkan League were not willing to cede to its demands, sparking the second war. Bulgaria was pitted against Serbia, Greece and Montenegro, with Romania and the Ottoman Empire also joining against Bulgaria after the start of the war. Fighting on all fronts, Bulgaria was soon forced to sue for peace, retaining some of its gains from the First War, but losing its SE corner back to the Ottomans. Romania recaptured some territory along its border with Bulgaria lost during the first war. Serbia gained most of the hotly-disputed Macedonia region, and Greece took a large part of Bulgaria's SW region.
Note: Balkan Wars - Predecessor to WWI. The Balkan Wars set the stage for WWI, which would commence one year later. Austria-Hungary was alarmed by an assertive Serbia, which was now an ally with their enemy Russia. The Ottoman Empire would also be prepared to mobilize in cooperation with Germany and Austria-Hungary, in hopes of regaining its lost territory in the Balkans. This would also lead Bulgaria to join the Ottomans, as distasteful as it was, in order to also regain lost territories from its Balkan neighbors.
List of Battles
Alliance System that led to War
Imperialism Issues with WORLD DOMINATION
The British Empire was famously spread out across one quarter of the globe (“the sun never sets on Britain” was a famous slogan of the mid 19th century). British colonial possessions in the late 1800s included Canada, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Burma, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, several Pacific and Caribbean Islands, South Africa, Rhodesia, Egypt and other parts of Africa. Many of these colonies were acquired with little difficulty; others took more effort and bloodshed.
France, was another major imperial power. French imperial holdings included Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia), some Pacific islands and several colonies in west and north-west Africa.
Empires closer to home included Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman sultanate. Russia ruled over Finland, Poland and several central Asian regions as an imperial power; its disastrous war against Japan in 1904-5 was an attempt to extend Russia’s imperial reach further into Korea and northern China.
Imperial instability was another contributor to European tensions. Critical problems in the Ottoman Empire also affected the balance of power in eastern Europe. Described by satirists as the ‘Sick Man of Europe’, the Ottoman sultanate was in rapid political, military and economic decline by the second half of the 1800s.
The ‘Eastern question’ – the issue of what would happen in eastern Europe as the Ottomans withdrew – was an important talking point of the late 19th century. These developments drew the Great Powers of Europe into the Balkan sphere, creating opportunities for rivalry and increased tensions.
Questions we want to answer:
What is Nationalism and how did it affect Europe leading up to WWI?
What fueled Pre-War nationalism throughout Europe and the World?
Why was rising nationalism a factor in the Balkans quest for independence?
How did nationalism affect literature (news papers) in Europe?
What were other causes of WWI that were exasperated (made worse) by strong nationalism ?
In the 19th and early 20th centuries military forces were considered a manifestation of national and imperial strength. A powerful state needed a powerful military to protect its interests and support its policies. Strong armies and navies were needed to defend the homeland, to protect imperial and trade interests abroad and to deter threats and rivals. War was to be avoided where possible – but it could also be used to advance a nation’s political or economic interests
Prussia is rightly considered the wellspring of militarism in Europe. Germany’s government and armed forces were both based on the Prussian model and many of its politicians and generals were Junkers (land-owning Prussian nobles). Prior to the 1871 unification, Prussia was the most powerful Germanic state, both in political and military terms.
Elsewhere in Europe militarism took on a different flavor, yet it was an important political and cultural force. British militarism, though more subdued than its German counterpart, was considered essential for maintaining the nation’s imperial and trade interests. The Royal Navy, by far the world’s largest naval force, protected shipping, trade routes and colonial ports. British land forces kept order and imposed imperial policies in India, Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
The Map as History - http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome06/index.php
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863 – 1914) and his wife, Sophie (1868 – 1914) had just arrived in Sarajevo after a visit with German Emperor William II (1859 – 1941). They were invited to watch the maneuvers of the Austrian troops in Bosnia. On the way into the city, their procession of cars had to drive relatively slowly, which played into the hands of the attackers that lay in wait.
Not long after starting off for the grounds, the driver of one of the cars leading the procession noticed that they were going the wrong way. The cars had to slowly turn back. Meanwhile, a second conspirator had taken up position. He seized his opportunity, and fired his pistol twice into the car. Franz Ferdinand was shot in the neck; Sophie in the abdomen. Their attacker also swallowed a cyanide pill, which also failed to work. While the second attacker was held by passersby, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie died in their car from their injuries.