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COM10003 - Fad Diets
Transcript of COM10003 - Fad Diets
Hilary McMillan, Janelle Taylor, Allyson Borg, Cassandra Coleman, Steph Papaevangelou, and Aaron Narayan
THE CABBAGE SOUP DIET
Where did the diet originate...
Source unknown, that being said, the diet has been constantly evolving and changing since the 1950's. (Diet Health,2015)
How long has it been around, and how popular is it?
50+ years, with celebrity support from Dolly Parton and GQ magazine that has created buzz around the diet. (Body+Soul,2015)
Any claimed proof and support for the diet?
No credible support, main concerns include future weight gain after loss of water weight only. (Body+Soul,2015)
Rules of the diet
Each day, eat as much cabbage soup as possible
Day 1: Unsweetened tea, black coffee, cranberry juice, water, and fruit (no banana)
Day 2: Vegetables (fresh/raw/cooked) No dry beans, sweet corn or peas. Baked potato with butter for dinner.
Day 3: Fruit and vegetables
Day 4: Eight bananas and an unlimited amount of skim milk
Day 5: 300g - 500g of beef, up to 6 fresh tomatoes, 6-8 glasses of water
Day 6: 300 - 500g of beef and vegetables
Day 7: Unlimited amount of brown rice, fruit and vegetables
(Catherine Soup, 2015)
Health Benefits/Risks of the diet
Benefits: Liver detox, anti-cancerous
Risks: dizziness and flatulence.
THE LEMON DETOX DIET
Where did the diet originate?
Originally known as The Master Cleanse,
created by Stanley Burroughs in the 1940's
and revived in the early1980's and renamed The Lemon Detox Diet (Connelly n/d)
How long has the diet been around and how popular is it?
The lemon detox diet has been around for over 70 years
with many celebrities supporting and swearing by its success.
Celebrities include Mariah Carey, Beyonce, Ashton Kutcher (Lemon Detox.com.au)
Is there any claimed proof and support for the diet?
Nutritionists have stated this is not a good diet
and claim more weight will be gained than lost (Connelly n/d)
But Herbalist, Richard Carney says "It is great for kick starting lifestyle changes.
It has been reported it can increase energy levels and improve digestion" (Connelly n/d)
There is no scientific evidence that the Master Cleanse actually works, because no research studies could be found
that had tested the ability of the diet to produce the claimed results (Tipler, 2009)
Rules of the diet!
10+ days of only drinking the lemon detox drink.
Juice is made up of
fresh lemon juice, maple syrup, cayenne pepper stirred into water.
Maple syrup was later replaced by
Madal Bal syrup, using sap from several species of palms (Lemon Detox.com.au)
Health benefits vs risks of the diet!
Temporary weight loss
There is no scientific evidence that it removes toxins (Tipler, 2009)
Short term use side effects include
fatigue, nausea, dizziness, and dehydration (Connelly n/d)
While long term harm can include loss of muscle mass (Connelly n/d)
Where it originated
Actual name: Paleolithic Diet (paleo diet or caveman diet)
Based on components of the Paleolithic Era spanning back about 2.5million years ago.
How long has it been around / popularity
The Paleolithic era ended about 12,000 years ago with the rise of agriculture, however popularity in recent times has come from a book written in 2002 by Loren Cordian – The Paleo Diet.
Proof and support for the diet
According to Dr. Karl from the ABC (Dr. Karl, 2013) there are many flaws in the Paleo Diet such as; humans have evolved as has our food, the diet suggested is no longer around, and the recommendations to eat high protein and fat is not healthy for humans today.
Rules of the diet ( eat/ don't eat)
The founder of the Paleo Movement, Loren Cordian (L. Cordian, 2015), states the following rules:
Eat: Grass-produce meats, fish/seafood, Fruit & Vege, Eggs, Nuts, & seeds.
Don’t eat: Cereal grains, Legumes, Dairy, Refined Sugar, Salt & Processed foods.
Health benefits/ health risks
The You Tube video on the next slide gives a brief explanation of the Paleo Diet, including the Health Benfits.
MEAL REPLACEMENT SHAKES: SLIM FAST
Where did it originate?
It started in New York in 1977 by Daniel Abraham.
How long has it been around and popularity?
Slim Fast has been around since 1977 then selling it to Unilever in 2000 ( fitness Tips for life. Availiable at:http://fitnesstipsforlife.com (Accessed:10 may 2015)and was very popular until Oprah who was on a similar diet stopped the one she was on and put the weight back on she had lost.
Are there any claimed professional support for the diet?
Victoria Beckham was a major supporter of the slim fast range. It has also been tested and analyzed by Nutrition Technologist, Angela Newburry who found the results to be very positive in favor of Slim Fast. It was studied by a scientist, Sara Stanner, from the British Nutrition Foundation who said it was nutritionally sound.
Rules of the diet
The rules of the plan with slim fast are real simple you have to have at least 6 small meals a day. You are meant to have one shake for breakfast then a small snack to tie you until you have another shake for lunch followed by another small snack before dinner which is your main meal that is the nutritious meal. Drinking plenty of water and exercise is also recommended for the best results.
Health Benefits and risks
This diet is intended to be safe to lose 1-2 pounds in a week with no medical interventions needed. Exercise is a needed and important part of the program. You don't have to do any calorie counting like on some diets and it is very flexible suiting the individuals needs. There have been no negative reports by people who have used it. It is said to not be a long term solution though.
THE PALEO DIET
Today's society is influenced immensely by the media and the 'celebrity' way of life. The number of Fad Diets has risen over the years as a result of the celebrity influence. It is to the concern of many health professionals as the Fad Diets are generally seen to be a 'quick fix', and some see the participants taking some extreme measures to drop weight rapidly. Fad Diets are not necessarily out there to be a way of life, more so a short term solution.
This presentation will review 6 popular Fad Diets with the use of various credible sources, their origin, how they work and whether or not they have the support of health professionals, as well as any health benefits or issues that arise
REFERENCES / SOURCE JUSTIFICATION
Cordian, L. (n.d.). ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF THE WESTERN DIET: HEALTH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY. In The Paleo Diet. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://thepaleodiet.com/event/origins-and-evolution-western-diet/
Cordian, L. (n.d.). WHAT TO EAT ON THE PALEO DIET. In The Paleo Diet. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://thepaleodiet.com/what-to-eat-on-the-paleo-diet/
This website is the home of the most recent push of the Paleo Diet. It is the source of all information on the diet, written by Loren Cordian, the worlds leading expert on the Paleo Diet and the founder of the Paleo Movement.
Dr. Karl, (2013, September 10). Paleolithic diet doesn't weigh up. In ABC Science. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/09/10/3842158.htm
This website was used as Dr. Karl is a well known Doctor who has a very public opinion on most Diets that are put in the public eye. His opinion is respected by a lot of health professionals.
Body+Soul, 2015. The dangers of the cabbage soup diet. Retrieved from www.bodyandsoul.com.au/weight+loss/diet+az/the+dangers+of+the+cabbage+soup+diet,23759
This article was published in 2015 by the "Body and Soul" organization, reviewed by qualified nutritionist Lisa Guy.
Diet Health, 2015. Cabbage Soup Diet. Retrieved from www.diet.com/g/cabbage-soup-diet
This article was published in 2015 by Diet Health, who run diet.com. This website specializes in diet, health and well being, and can be found on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. Diet health has also published their contact details.
Catherine Soup, 2015. 7 Day Cabbage Soup Diet. Retrieved from http://www.cabbage-soup-diet.com/eating-plan/
This web page has been created to inform people about all the up-to-date information in regards to the cabbage soup diet. The author of the web page has published an e-book titled "7 Day Cabbage Soup Diet, Slow Fat loss Fix", and keeps the web page up to date.
Health-latest News,articles and Information/Daily Mail online (no date)Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article(accesssed 29 April 2015)
International Directory of Company History,Vol.66. St.James Press,2004
(no date) Avilable at:slim-fast-diet.com (Accessed 28 April 2015)
(no date) Avaible at: http"//www.slimfast.com/company/company,asap (accessed 30 April 2015
The Lemon Detox 2015 Retrieved from http://www.lemondetox.com.au (no date or author available)
I used this site because it was originally started by the makers and founders of the Lemon Detox diet. It has both old and new information
Connolly.E, n/d, Body and Soul, Lemon detox diet examined Retrieved from http://www.bodyandsoul.com.au/weight+loss/diets/lemon+detox+diet+examined,9621
I used Body and Soul as their research contains professional opinions and advise from qualified nutritionists and herbalists
Tipler, A.T, (2009) Before2After; The Master Cleanse, a review. Retrieved from http://before2after.net/blog1/2009/01/18/master_cleanse_review/comment-page-1/
I used this site because it contains opinions and advise of qualified nutritionists and dietitians and has quotes of personal experience with the diet
THE ATKINS DIET
Where it originated?
Dr Robert C Atkins in 1972 developed Atkin’s Nutritional Approach in his book “Dr Atkins’ Diet Revolution”. (Marples, 2008)
How long it has been around and it's popularity
The Atkin’s diet began in 1972 and was adapted in 2002, it is still being used to date. In 2003, 3 million plus Brits were estimated to have tried diet. In U.S. one in 11 people on diet (Barford, n.d.) Popular in Australia (High Protein Diet, n.d.)
Any claimed proof and support for the diet?
The Atkin’s Diet is one of the most studied diets, with results being moderately successful. Lots of studies have been carried out with success stories found over many websites. (Atkins, 2015)
Rules of the diet (what you’re allowed/not allowed to eat)
Four phases to diet; induction, ongoing weight-loss, pre-maintenance and lifetime maintenance. (Gunnars, n.d.)
Foods you can eat:
Meats, Fatty fish and seafood, eggs, low carb vegetables, full fat dairy, nuts and seeds, healthy fats (Gunnars, n.d.)
Foods to avoid:
Sugar, Grains, Vegetable oils, Trans fat, Diet and Low Fat Foods, High Carb Vegetables and fruits, Starches and Legumes. (Gunnars, n.d.)
Health benefits/health risks of the diet?
Benefits: Prevent/improve metabolic syndrome, diabetes, high blood pressure cardiovascular disease. (Results, 1998-2015)
Risks: headache, dizziness, weakens, fatigue, constipation, ketosis (Results, 1998-2015)
Where it originated?
In 1930, Swiss Doctor Paul Kouchakoff suggested that human bodies find it harder to digest cooked food rather than raw food (“History of Raw Food”, 2009).
How long has it been around and its popularity?
The raw food diet began in 1930 (“History of Raw Food”, 2009). Its popularity soared when Demi Moore credited her toned bikini body at the age of 40 to raw veganism (“Famous Raw Foodists”, 2013).
Any claimed proof and support for the diet?
There are safety concerns from health professionals concerning the fact that cooking food destroys bacteria and without proper preparation when consuming a raw food diet, food poising can occur. There is also the consideration that some foods are more nutritious when cooked (“Expert Advice”, 2015).
Rules of the diet (what you are allowed and not allowed to eat)
This is explained in the attached video.
Are there any health benefits or health risks of the diet?
Supporters of the raw food diet claim it can help people clear their skin, lose weight and have a reduced risk of disease amongst many other things (“Raw Food Diet”, 2015). Scientific support for these claims is minimal, however there was a study conducted that found that a raw food diet could help lower total cholesterol which is associated with diseases such as diabetes and heart disease (“Raw Food Diet”, 2015).
In order to determine whether the information I was sourcing was credible I followed Metzger’s article and created a checklist to aide my decision. By establishing ‘Authority’, verifying ‘accuracy’, confirming ‘currency’, assessing the ‘coverage’ and determining whether the information is ‘Objective’, (Metzger, 2007) I have been able to justify why I visited and used the information from the following websites.
Metzger, M.J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the Web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2078-2091.
Atkins (2015) In Atkins Success Stories. Retrieved from http://www.atkins.com/success-stories (April 21, 2015)
This page states that it is copyright 2015 Atkin’s Nutritional which indicates that the information is credible, which covers ‘Authority’ and ‘currency’. I also considered given that the information is on Atkin’s main web page the information is coming directly from those who have tried the Atkin’s diet.
Barford, Vanessa (n.d), In BBC News Magazine Atkin’s and the never-ending battle over carbs. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22145709 (April 21, 2015)
Despite the amount of advertising on this website, the article states the author’s name and when the article was published (authority and currency). The accuracy and coverage of the article is also good. The author does state her opinion and findings however I didn’t feel that it skewed my thoughts of the article.
Gunnars, Kris (n.d.), The Atkins Diet: Everything you need to know (Literally), Authority Nutrition. Retrieved from http://authoritynutrition.com/atkins-diet-101/ (April 21, 2015)
I was able to establish Authority with this article as it has the authors name on it. The article appears to be very popular given the amount of views it has had. Even though I may not have taken into account all components of my checklist, reading through the article I was able to read the information as credible, as I read the same information on other websites, this site simplified the information.
High Protein Diets (n.d.) In Nutrition Australia. Retrieved from http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/frequently-asked-questions/weight-management/high-protein-diets-detailed (April 21, 2015)
The information on this page I considered credible. Authority can be established in regards to being able to read information about Nutrition Australia. The page states the Nutrition Australia is a registered association, so this means that the information must be accurate and the coverage comprehensive.
Marples, Gareth (2008) The History of the Atkins Diet – A Revolutionary Lifestyle! Retrieved from http://carbhealth.com/articles_history.htm (April 21, 2015)
The information on this page is credible. Using my checklist authority can be established by seeing the author’s name and seeing a sentence length about the author. Currency can be confirmed by seeing that the article was reprinted with permission in 2004. The information in the article is accurate and well written. Results (1998-2015). In Mayo Clinic Healthy Lifestyle Weight loss. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/weight-loss/in-depth/atkins-diet/art-20048485?pg=2 (April 21, 2015)
Authority of this article can be established along with its currency when seeing the copyright stamp 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Also the Mayo Clinic is a well-known clinic overseas which does a lot of research into various medical conditions, diets etc. and therefore the article is accurate and the coverage informative. The mentioned points led me to determine the article as being credible.
(No Date) Availiable at:http://www.slimfast.com/company/company.asap (Accessed: 2 May 2015)
This site has help me link up information that is similar to other sites which is why i think this is a credible site. It has the copy right dated 2015 and also links up to another site where they have access to movies and recipes for meal ideas.
Health-Latest News,Articles and Information/Daily Mail Online (no date) Availiable at:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article(Accessed :2 May 2015)
This site I believe is credible as it its from a newspaper article witch has the date of copy right 1997-2014 ninesmsnptyltd. It also has scientific backup from a nutrition technologist who supports slim fast. In doing more research i have come to the conclusion that the author of the article is particularly interested in the health side of her job and has been a writer for 20 yrs.
REFERENCES / SOURCE JUSTIFICATION CONT.
THE RAW FOOD DIET
REFERENCES / SOURCE JUSTIFICATION CONT.
Expert Advice on Starting a Raw Food Diet, (2015). Retrieved May 11, 2015, from http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Changing_to_a_Raw_Food_Diet
This website provided feedback on the raw food diet from health experts including doctors and dietitians.
Famous Raw Foodists, (2013). Retrieved May 10, 2015, from http://www.raw-living-food-success.com/famous-raw-foodists.html#sthash.LPSF2kbZ.dpbs
This website is dedicated to providing information about different people who have tried the raw food diet and found success. This includes a long list of celebrities who have been quoted supporting the diet.
Howcast. (2015, May 10). What Is A Raw Food Diet? | Raw Food Diet [Video file]. Video posted to www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOCG0JbIVI0
This video provided information on the rules of what you can and cant eat on the diet from a noted raw food chef.
The History of Raw Food. (2009). Retrieved April 28, 2015, from http://www.purelyraw.com/history.htm
The information on this site was extensive and provided a layout of the history of raw food for the last one hundred years and the factors that lead to its popularity.
The Raw Food Diet. (2015). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from http://altmedicine.about.com/od/popularhealthdiets/a/Raw_Food.htm
This website is based on providing information about medicine including diets and what they can do to your health. It had a plethora of information on other diets as well as medical conditions.
fad diet(a) (n.d.) Segen's Medical Dictionary. (2011). Retrieved May 9 2015 from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/fad+diet
fad diet(b) (n.d.) McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. (2002). Retrieved May 9 2015 from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/fad+diet
The media is constantly polluting our minds
with what we "think" we should look like, so when a Fad diet comes along that can make you look like your favorite celebrity within a week, there is no doubt that it is going to be popular. The diets discussed; The Paleo Diet, The Cabbage Soup Diet, Meal Replacement Shakes, The Lemon Detox Diet, The Atkins Diet, and The Raw Food Diet, can all have adverse effects on our bodies. These effects include; dizziness, future weight gain, and even a nutrient imbalance in our bodies. A Fad Diet may make you lose a drastic amount of weight for a week or two, but long term the only way to lose weight is through a balanced diet and exercise.
(no date) Available at: slim-fast-diet.com(Accessed :2 May 2015)
This is a credible source as the writer has done her research on not just the slim fast products but also other areas linked to it as well.theartiiclce has a publication date for the site. The author has been witting for 20yrs as well.
A fad diet is defined as a diet in which weight-loss occurs rapidly. The nature of a fad diet is extreme and eliminates one or more of the essential food groups that we require to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Those who are on a fad diet will ingest fewer calories and/or consume more energy through exercise, resulting in an unhealthy lifestyle and may lead to poor health. (fad diet (a,b,c), n.d)