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Nickel

Nickel Mineral Project
by

Samantha Ling

on 8 December 2013

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Transcript of Nickel

Nickel
-transition metal
-not reactive with water and air
-chemical symbol Ni
-atomic weight 58.71
-atomic number 28
-occurs as sulphides and silicate
-exists in Earth's crust and core
-the fifth most common element on earth



Introduction
What is the mineral?
How reactive is it to other elements?
Extraction Process
What type of mining is it?
-Nickel deposits are found in two forms:
sulphide (27%) but the majority of nickel is produced from sulphide deposits
laterite (73%)

-Sulphide deposits
found hundreds of metres below surface
generally require underground mining
easier and cheaper to extact (floatation method)

-
Laterite deposits
found closer to the surface (about 15 to 20m deep)
mined via open-cut methods

Birchtree Mine: an underground nickel mine in the city of Thompson, Manitoba; 55°42'06"N 097°55'37"W; owned and operated by Vale Inco the world’s second largest producer of nickel

-Canada ranks in the top five countries for the production of nickel
-Exists mainly in the:
Thompson Nickel Belt (Manitoba)
Sudbury Basin (Ontario)
Ungava Peninsula (Quebec)

Mining in Canada
Process to Separate Nickel
-
Milling
The ore is crushed to separate the nickel from other rocks

-Sulphide: Flotation
Nickel is concentrated through this physical separation technique

-Laterite: Smelting
The rock is molten to extract nickel

-Leaching
High temperature pressure acid removes impurities; leaches the metal into a nickel salt solution

-
Electro-winning and refining of the metal
The dissolved metal ions are deposited onto the cathode
By Samantha Ling
The Uses of Nickel
What are some things we use nickel for?
-rarely used in its pure form
-mainly used in its alloys (stainless steel)
-in a wide variety of industries (e.g., every day life, automobile, transport and aerospace industries)
-used in over 300,000 products
-Nickel is a natural element of the earth's crust; small amounts are found in food, water, soil, and air.
-Can cause contact allergy (dermatitis) in sensitized individuals
-Large amounts by inhalation or ingestion are harmful



(As of Nov. 29, 2013, the nickel price is 6.08 USD/Ib)
The Value of Nickel
Issues Related To Nickel Mining
Introduction
The Uses of Nickel (cont.)
Environment, Pollution and Toxic Chemicals
Benefits of Nickel
Mining
-a key economic driver in nickel mining communities
-total value generated by the nickel value chain* was estimated to be $9.3 billion (2006 in Canada)
-employment generated by the nickel value chain was estimated to be 73,560 with salaries and wages of 3.2 billion (2006)
-contributed to social development
-supported local communities

Extraction Process
Process to Separate Nickel
The Uses of Nickel
Benefits of Nickel Mining
Smelting:

energy consumption
releases of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter to air
Leaching:

generates ferrite residues
residues contain heavy metals
Electrowinning
gases generated during the electrowinning process can go into the air

Nickel mining, production, processing, use and recycling are subject to various legislative initiatives from national and international authorities

*nickel and nickel-based products

Conclusion
-Nickel is widely used in our daily lives
-Green Mining Initiative and Best Practices in Environmental Management will ensure the sustainability
Conclusion
(
Nickel Institute
, 2013)
(Infomine
, 2013)
(Vale
, 2013)
Google Earth Image of Birchtree Mine
(Mirabela Nickel
, 2013)
(
Vale,
2013)
http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/107914main_ssme_arrow.gif/
(
Nickel Institute
, 2013)
-used in Space Shuttle's main engines
stainless steel are superior to the individual metals
corrosion-resistance and heat-resistance
there is no substitute for nickel without reducing performance or increasing cost
The Uses of Nickel (continued)
(
United States Environmental Protection Agency
, 2013)
http://www.infomine.com/ChartsAndData/GraphEngine.ashx?z=t&dr=max&g=127670
http://www.infomine.com/ChartsAndData/GraphEngine.ashx?z=f&gf=110564.USD.lb&dr=5y
(
Environment Canada
, 2013)
(
Nickel Institute,
2013)
http://www.vale.com/en/business/mining/nickel/pages/default.aspx
http://russiatrek.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/norilsk-nickel-mining-smelting-company-russia-25.jpg/

http://0.tqn.com/d/metals/1/0/c/Y/Nickel-xn_photo_Refined_nickel_at_the_Nikkelverk_refinery_Norway2.jpg/
http://www.seprosystems.com/images/stories/homeslide/19.jpg/
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQrZQDlKIEHEDRvKC4yqhWagPqN_4yB5QawNcTBjDvgSTKAYyIHkA/
http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/airplanes-work-1.jpg
http://techexplainer.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/li-ion-battery-for-mobile-phones-cell-phones.jpg

http://www.bellona.org/imagearchive/nikel1.jpg/
http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/nickderm.jpg/

http://halifax.mediacoop.ca/sites/mediacoop.ca/files2/mc/imagecache/bigimg/diana-ellen-crop.jpg/

http://www.mining.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/vale-requests-building-homes-at-mines-in-sudbury-300x250.jpg/
http://www.vale.com/en/business/mining/nickel/pages/default.aspx/
http://www.id.all.biz/img/id/catalog/28949.jpeg/
http://www.scienceimage.csiro.au/index.cfm?event=site.image.thumbnail&id=1893&viewfile=f&divid=NM
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