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The Solar System

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beth wojo

on 29 March 2015

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Transcript of The Solar System

Stars
The Sun
T
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S
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l
a
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S
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Created By:
Beth

Wojciechowski
Katie Mullen
Samantha Bracellari
and
Lola Reed
Comets
The Planets
From the closest to the sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Comets are sometimes reffered to as"dirty snowballs".
They orbit retrograde around the sun.
Comets are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles.
The sun is the very center of our solar system. It consists of three main parts - the interior, the atmosphere, and special features.
The interior is made up of the core, the radiation zone, and the convection zone. The atmosphere is made up of the photosphere, chromosphere, and the corona, and the special features are sunspots, solar flares, prominences, and solar winds.
The sun is the reason the planets have an orbital path. It's gravitational pull keeps all the planets, moons, and comets in orbit.
Meteoroids
The main parts of a comet:
Coma: A coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet.
Dust tail: The dust tail consists of dust particles that have been pushed out of the coma.
Gas tail: The gas tail of a comet generally starts to form somewhere around the orbit of Mars.
Nucleus: The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, which is composed of rock, dust, and frozen gases.
Corona: A dense cloud of water, carbon dioxide and other neutral gases sublimed from the nucleus.
Meteoroids are small chunks of rock in space. They are most likely debris from a comet, but they don't have a specific orbit. Meteoroids are small compared to asteroids, measuring at only about 30 miles in diameter, or less.
Meteors
Mercury has a lot of craters on its surface from impacts of asteroids. Its year is 3 Earth months and its day is 2 Earth months. Mercury's gravity is very weak. It doesn't have any moons.
There has been more than 100,000 found.
We are constantly finding more.
They are irregularly shaped.
The asteroid belt is located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Moons
A meteor is a bright streak of light in the sky, also known as a shooting star or a falling star. Meteors are just meteoroids that have entered Earth's atmosphere. Most meteors burn up in Earth's atmosphere before they impact the surface and become meteorites, but in some cases, they have impacted the Earth and made a large crater.
Venus' orbit is retrograde, or backwards compared to all of the other planets. It's the hottest planet. Venus has a volcano on it. It can be seen from Earth. It's atmosphere is 90 times heavier than Earth's. It doesn't have any moons. The length of day on Venus is 243 Earth days. A year on Venus is only about 225 Earth days, so its days is longer than its year.
Asteroids are smaller than planets.
Meteorites
A meteorite is a meteoroid that has entered Earth's atmosphere and impacted the surface. Meteorites originate from asteroids or comets, as well as meteoroids and meteors. Some meteorites create craters when they impact the Earth, while others are too small to cause damage.
Asteroids are named after the scientists who find them.
Earth is the only planet that has three types of water on it (solid, liquid, and gas).

75% of Earth's surface is covered by water.
It is always changing due to tectonic plates and erosion.
Earth is the only planet out of all of them that supports life.
It has one moon.
Our year is 365 days and our day is 24 hours.
The asteroid belt is estimated to contain between 1.1 and 1.9 million asteroids.
There are a few asteroids that cross the Earth's orbital path, they are called Earth-crossers.
Mars is named after Roman God of war. It's red because of the rust. We've sent rovers to Mars. It has a Giant volcano that is 3 times bigger than Mt. Everest. Mars is more than 95% carbon dioxide. It has 2 moons. Mars' day is 1.03 Earth days, and its year is 1.9 Earth years.
The asteroid belt separates the terrestrial planets
from the gas giants.
The Last 4 planets in our solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are known as the gas giants.
Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud
The Asteroid Belt
Asteroids
The Kuiper Belt is a region in our solar system that's shaped more like an ellipse than a circle. It begins past the orbit of Neptune and is considered to be the source or short-period comets.
Jupiter is our largest planet of them all.
1,400 Earth's could fit inside Jupiter. It has big, violent storms, but is known for the Great Red Spot.
The Great Red Spot is a giant hurricane that is 2 times the size of Earth.
Jupiter has over 63 moons and 17 of them have names.
It takes 12 Earth years to go around the sun, and 0.41 Earth days to make one complete rotation around its axis.
Appearance
The first 4 planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are known as the terrestrial, or rocky planets.
Their brightness depend on how much energy they put out.

Hot stars are white or blue, where as cooler stars appear to have orange or red hues.

Stars may occur in many sizes, which are classified in a range from dwarfs to super-giants.
Saturn is known for its rings. It has 7 ring groups. Its rings are 42 tons. They're also miles wide and a half a mile thick. It takes 29 Earth years for Saturn to go around the sun once, and 0.45 Earth days is equal to one day on Saturn. 5 Saturn's would be as dense as 1 Earth. Saturn has 63 moons, and it's home of the second biggest moon in the Solar System, named Titan.
Life Cycle
Young stars are called protostars.

Stars evolve over billions of years.

The larger a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan will be.

As stars move toward the end of their lives much of their hydrogen has been converted to helium.

Helium sinks to the star's core and raises the star's temperature—causing its outer shell to expand. These are called red giants.

White dwarfs cool for billions of years, until they eventually go dark and produce no energy.
Uranus is half the diameter as Saturn, and it's also twice as far from the sun as Saturn. Uranus has 13 rings. it's axis is on its side. It rotates retrograde. Uranus has 27 moons. It has 5 of the largest moons. It takes 84 Earth years for Uranus to go around the sun once, and 0.72 Earth days to make one full rotation on its axis.
Neptune is the the coldest planet. It takes 164 Earth years to go around the sun and 0.67 Earth days is equal to 1 day on Neptune. It has 9 rings. Neptune orbits in complete darkness. It has 13 moons.
Rings
The rocky planets and the Gas Giants are separated by the Asteroid Belt.
Here are some of the largest moons in our solar system:
A moon is defined to be a celestial body that makes an orbit around a planet, including

the eight major planets, dwarf planets, and minor planets.
Six of the eight planets have moons. The two moons that do not have a moon are Mercury and Venus.
Dwarf Planets
Pluto is an example of a dwarf planet.
They orbit the sun, just like regular planets do.
Dwarf planets are sometimes called second degree planets or planetoids.
They have some planet features, but lack too many to be an actual planet.
The Oort Cloud is a spherical cloud surrounding the planetary system. The Oort Cloud is said to be the edge of the Sun's orb of gravitational influence.


Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa, Triton, and Titan.
Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter, has an extremely thin layer of oxygen covering it. Its also possible that aurorae occur at its poles. Daytime temperatures on the surface average around -113C to -183C (-171F to -297F). At night temperatures plunge even further, to around -193C (-315F).
Callisto's surface is covered entirely with craters.
Callisto orbits beyond Jupiter's main radiation belt. It has the lowest density of any of the "Galilean Moons".
Io's is the fifth moon in distance from the planet Jupiter, and it is the most volcanically active object in the solar system. Io has an iron core just like Earth, meaning it could have its own magnetic field.
Europa is the sixth moon in distance from the planet Jupiter and the fourth largest. There is possibly twice as much liquid water on Europa as there is on
Earth. Jupiter has over 65 moons and the four that were just named are the four largest.

Triton, Neptunes largest of 13 moons, has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2, on Aug 25, 1989. Almost everything we know about it comes from this encounter. Triton is the coldest known object in the Solar System.
Titan is the sixth moon in distance from Saturn. It is the largest of Saturn's moons and the second largest in the solar system. Saturn has over 63 moons.
The other smaller moons are Earth's moon, or Luna, Mars' moons, Phobos, and Deimos, and Uranus' largest moon, Titania.
Luna
Earth's moon, also known as 'Luna', makes Earth a more liveable planet by creating a stable climate. The Moon was likely formed after a Mars-sized body collided with Earth.
Phobos and Deimos
Phobos and Deimos are thought to be captured asteroids. Phobos is larger and closer to Mars than Deimos is. It's closer to its primary than any other known planetary moon. Phobos's orbital radius is decreasing and it will eventually either impact the surface of Mars or break up into a planetary ring.
Deimos is the smaller and outer of Mars' moons. It is also one of the smallest known moons in the Solar System. Unlike Phobos, Deimos is slowly moving farther away from Mars, and is believed that it will eventually escape its atmoshpere.
Titania
Titania is Uranus' largest moon and the eighth largest moon in th Solar System. Titania consists of approximately equal amounts of ice and rock, and has a rocky core and an icy mantle. A layer of liquid water may be present at the core. It's surface is tinted red and seems to have suffered impacts in its past.
There are actually four planets in our Solar System with rings, these planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune – are all Gas Giants.
Jupiter has 1 ring, Saturn has 7 primary ring groups, Uranus has 11 individual rings, and Neptune has 9 individual rings as well.
Rings are formed when a comet, asteroid, or other large object pass too close to a planet and get torn apart by the planet's gravity. Rings are made up of ice and rock.
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