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Medieval Europe

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by

Stephen Battise

on 28 September 2016

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Transcript of Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe
500-1500 AD (CE)

Eastern Roman Empire continued for about 1000 years - became known as Byzantine Empire
Justinian 527-565
Wanted to restore power of former Roman empire
Law code - Justinian's Code - women share many of same rights they have today

Dark Ages
Europe was fragmented
Western Roman Empire invaded by Barbaric tribes. Led to:
1.
Disruption of Trade
— $ became scarce
2.
Downfall of cities
—when Rome fell cities were no longer economic centers
3.
Population shifted from urban to rural
Invasions Trigger Changes in Western Europe
Vandals, Goths, and Franks
NO written language.
Greek and Roman culture and language was almost completely lost.
Church officials and priests = literate
Common language is lost
The Decline of Learning
The Church
Survived Fall of Rome
Offered order and security
Church led by:
Popes
Priests
Monks and Nuns
Church leader
Head of Individual Churches
Lived in monasteries
Converted people.
Lived by strict code of laws
Monks spent much of time transcribing the Bible
Churches and Cathedrals during the Middle Ages
Popes would become more powerful than Kings
Gaul (France)
Clovis conquers Gaul and adopts Christianity
Church supported Clovis against Germanic tribes
Result=Clovis unites Franks into kingdom
Alliance with church
Clovis
Muslim invaders
conquering Africa and Spain
Invade into Christian kingdoms in Europe
Charles Martel rallied French
and fought Muslims (Battle of Tours)
Battle of Tours (732) – Christian armies defeated Muslim invaders
Islam Invades
Charlemagne (742-814) inherits kingdom from his predecessors. (Martel and Pepin)
Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne emperor of Romans
Charlemagne establishes a centralized government—royal agents, counts, visited kingdoms himself
Charlemagne – “Charles the Great”
A European Empire Evolves:
Charlemagne
Feudal System
Castles!
Feudal Warfare!!!!
Trebuchets were used to hurl all sorts of objects at the enemy.
Manoralism (econ. system)
For safety and for defense formed
small communities central lord or master
Lived on Manor
castle, church, village, and farm land
isolated



         

Why do you think everyone chose to be isolated?
Protection for work = Lords to Serfs (high taxes, harsh life)
Feudalism (political system)
Land
land
Work Land for food and $
All land is given in return for protection and payment
fief
- Land given to Knight from Lord
Vassal
- anyone who accepted a fief
Chivalry- code of honor
French military state created

Kings that spoke no English ruled for 300 years.
1066 - England invaded by Normans
(Vikings from modern-day France)
Conquered all England
William of Normandy - linked England to France
codified feudalism (gave it the force of law).
Norman Invasion
King Edward “The Confessor” dies w/ no successor to throne
.
Harold
Godwinson and William Duke of Normandy fight
William attacked England and won
William “The Conqueror” Crowned King of England in 1066

Pope nullifies it and then John refuses to abide by it.
Magna Carta
Signed in 1215
Placed Kings within Rule of Law
Limited powers of king.
King John was terrible King.
Created a Parliament
Rights for freemen
Part of basis for Democracy
Crusades
Series of wars between Christians and Muslims
Christians wanted Holy Land (Jerusalem)
Series of 8 spanning over 200 years
Why was Constantinople so important geographically?
Problems:
Muslim world was relatively peaceful
Christians killed many of own Christians en route to Middle East
Christians were allowed access to worship in Jerusalem before crusades
Effects:
Persecution of Jews and Muslims
Economic development via trade
Kings and Popes, gained power as a result.
Christians never able to fully hold Jerusalem
France wins *
The Hundred years war
(1336-1453)
England and France fight control of French throne.
Lasted for 116 years, with few periods of peace
Back and forth
Joan of Arc
Claimed Saints told her to lead troops into battle
French King allowed, and troops followed her willingly
Killed by British, but French army spurred on by French King Charles VII
The Black Death
The Bubonic Plague
Where did the Black Death come from?

Arrived in England 1348.
Spread very quickly
Few villages escaped. Churchyards were full with bodies
.

By 1350, nearly the whole of Britain was infected with the plague
.

At the end of 1350 nearly two and a half million people were dead!
What were the symptoms of the plague?
The Oriental Rat Flea!
The question that you are probably thinking is this;
Q: Who or what caused the Black Death?

A: This is your answer!

Came on rats aboard Italian trading
ships from Asia
What caused the plague?
Moors will control Spain and retain a presence until 1492 when Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain finally remove them
Known as the Reconquista
Inquisition
Began in the 1100's in France to combat heresy within Catholic Europe
Heresy?
- any belief going against established traditions, in this case anything against the Catholic Church

lords
Peasants
-
serfs - tied to land
and
freemen - rent land from Lord
Guilds
Merchant guild- association of merchants in towns or cities

Craft guild - associations of artisans and craftsmen
Purpose -
est. monopoly of trade
maintained standards of quality
maintain stable prices
sought to further interests of guilds, tried to control local govts.
The Great Schism 1054
Split between Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church (Byzantine Empire)
Greek philosophy vs. Roman Law
East did not agree with clerical celibacy
Political system of the Middle Ages
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