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Copy of Language Comparison
Transcript of Copy of Language Comparison
Language Comparison Study: Tagalog and English
Tagalog is the basis for the Filipino language
Consists of 21 letters:
Consonants: b, d, k, g, h, l, m, n, ng, p, ( ' ), r, s, t, w, and y
Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
There are 5 diphthongs: iw, ay, aw, oy, uy
Tagalog is a phonetic language, so words are spelled how they sound
Differences in Phonology
There are 9 English consonants that don't exist in Tagalog
/v/, /j/, /z/, voiced th, voiceless th, sh, dz, and z
English has 8 diphthongs and Tagalog has 5
English isn't always spelled phonetically like Tagalog
Meanings of words change based on where stress in placed on a word in Tagalog
Key Differences Between
Tagalog and English
Data Analysis of Filipino Student
Both Written and Verbal data was collected on one Filipino Student for an error analysis.
* Born and raised in Philippines
* Went to International School learning both Tagalog and English
* Moved to United States in October, 2011
* Ten year old male
* Entered 4th grade in the ESL program
* Received regular education instruction, with 90 min language arts instruction with ESL teacher daily
* Outgoing personality, confident in English speaking abilities
1. English uses the auxiliary verb "to be"
There are no auxiliary verbs in Tagalog like in English
Differences in Grammar
4. In English, sentences have a subject and predicate
In Tagalog, there is a focus
"Word order is "relatively flexible in Filipino" ( Lofrance, Pena,
& Bedore, 2006, p. 29)
Error Type: Singular and Plural Nouns
Now they are fifth grader. Now they are fifth graders.
There's a crayons. There's a crayon.
2. English pronouns show gender - he, she
In Tagalog pronouns are not gender specific
Example: "siya" is used to represent he or she
3. English adds -s or -es to nouns to show the plural form,
unless they are irregular nouns
Tagalog has no irregular verbs
Tagalog does not add -s, instead mga is placed before
the word to be pluralized
Example: "bato" = "stone" "mga bato" = stones
5. English relies on subject/verb agreement
In Tagalog verbs do not change to show tense
Example: adverbs or expressions of time indicate when
a verb has taken place
"Differences that underlie the superficial similarities of English and Filipino can lead to predictable changes in the target language" (Lofranco et al., 2006, p. 28)
Error Type: Subject/Verb Agreement
My brother want to feed the ducks. My brother wants to feed the ducks.
He always do bad things in school. He always does bad things in school.
Error Type: Auxiliary Verbs
Then the food were served. Then the food was served.
Error Type: Irregular Verbs
He bring it last day of school. He brought it on the last day of school.
I tell to my mom and dad. I told my mom and dad
Error Type: Verb Tense
He drop it. He dropped it.
Direct, explicit instruction of English grammatical rules
Specific lessons on plural nouns, irregular nouns, verb tense, irregular verbs and subject/verb agreement
Practice through reading, writing, speaking and listening across all subject areas.
Some specific activities include:
identifying nouns, verbs, etc in reading material, such as guided reading books for reinforcement
use of graphic organizers to show concepts and skills
games to reinforce skills
According to a student by Lucas & Bernardo (2008), young bilingual students tend to show a noun bias in English and a verb bias in Filipino (p. 160).
Lofranco, L. L., Pena, E. D., & Bedore, L. M. (2006). English language narratives of Filipino
children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School, 37(1), 28-38.
Lucas, R. G., & Bernardo, A. I. (2008). Exploring noun bias in Filipino-English bilingual
children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169(2), 149-164.
Neumann, C. G., (2011, March). Introduction to the Philippines. Multicultural Topics in
Communication Sciences & Disorders. Retrieved from
Paralejas, C. G. (2012). Tagalog. Retrieved from
The Filipino language can have verbless sentences, so verb omission can happen when translating into English (Lofranco et al., 2006).
Errors were likely due to interference of L1 while translating to L2.
Due to student age (10), some errors were developmental.
According to the WIDA performance definitions and Can-Do Descriptors, student is between bridging and expanding levels in speaking and writing.
Errors do not interfere with overall meaning of communication.