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Transcript of CBT
No evidence for symptom substitution
Breadth of application
Blend of clinician and scientist
Cognitive Behavioral theory
Goal is to modify dysfunctional patterns of thinking
Both cognitive & behavioral techniques
Typically 14 to 16 sessions. Many patients show a remission of symptoms in 8 to 12 sessions.
Therapist is an active, supportive collaborator.
What really works?
Manipulation & control
Do these effects generalize to real-world?
Lack of a unifying theory
What disturbs men’s minds is not events but their judgments of events
The only way to happiness and is to stop worrying about things which are beyond your control
We are what we think
Our thoughts make the world
Detachment from suffering
Behavior is influenced by social context or environmental factors, and not psychological factors alone
•Formula to predict behavior
Behavior Potential (BP) = f (Expectancies * Reinforcement Value)
•e.g. More likely to listen in class if you expect that it will improve your grade and you find the topic appealing
Attention, Retention, Motivation, Reproduction.
: keep tabs
: compare to a standard
: rewarding or punishing self-responses
: rewarding responses = pleasant self-concept
•Watson & Raynor (1920): Albert
•Mary Cover Jones (1924): Peter
Identify maladaptive thoughts
Challenge these thoughts
Re-attribute ‘blame’ to appropriate source
Schedule activities to counteract tendency to focus on negative
Increase pleasurable activities
Increase competence and mastery
Cognitive rehearsal, role plays
Homework e.g. diary, critical thinking
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Social Learning Theory
Aaron Temkin Beck
Jumping to illogical conclusions
One minor detail provides the basis for a negative conclusion
Personalization or self-referencing:
Taking things personally
All or nothing thinking:
A false dilemma
Dichotomous or Polarized thinking:
People and situations are either all-good or all-bad.
Labeling and Mislabeling:
Holding on to irrelevant labels
Magnification and Minimization:
Overestimating or underestimating the relevance of a situation.
Strong conclusions on the basis of a single or small number of incidents
Emergency room, inpatient psychiatric hospital
Assessed and medication treatment for 3 weeks
Continued meds, treated by psychologist with CBT
Mom and Dad separated
Moved out of state
New school, no friends
Mom working 2 jobs
Anna alone at home
16 year old
Evaluate accuracy of thoughts
Understand the connection between thoughts and behavior
Substitute negative thoughts with more positive and realistic thoughts
Therapy for a year No evidence of depression or suicidal thoughts at 6-month follow up.
Kearney, C. A. (2010). Casebook in Childhood Behavior Disorders. Wadsworth
Negative views about the world
"Everybody hates me"
Negative views about oneself
Negative views about the future
"Nothing good will happen to me"