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History of the Atom
Transcript of History of the Atom
( cloud model) "Democritus of Abdera." Democritus of Abdera. Giannis Stamatellos, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.philosophy.gr/presocratics/democritus.htm>. He was a philosopher, pupil of Leucippus, and also made contributions to geometry. Contribution to the history of atomic structure: He believed atoms were different in size, shape, matter etc.. He theorized about the possibility of the smallest measure of matter, which he called atomos. "General Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Atoms & Ions." General Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Atoms & Ions. General Chemistry Online, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/atoms/index.shtml>. Atomic Theory: Matter consists of invisible particles called atoms. They are indestructible and unchangeable. They constantly move in empty space. Was sent to Athens to complete his education, he studied at the Academy under the philosopher Plato. "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Aristotle. N.p., 11 Apr. 2001. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/>. Contribution to the history of the atomic structure: Disagreed with the Greeks, he believed that the theory was based on four elements. Coffey, Jerry. "Aristotle Atomic Theory." Universe Today. N.p., 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.universetoday.com/62400/aristotle-atomic-theory/>. Atomic theory: Believed matter was made up of the four elements; earth,water,fire, and air. In the model there was also two forces, harmony and conflict. "John Dalton Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/john-dalton-9265201>. He was a school teacher, he also identified the hereditary of color blindness ("Daltonism") Contribution to the history of the atomic stucture: Created the first chart on atomic weights. He belived different elements could be identified by atomic weight. Atomic Theory: Atoms of the same element are identical, atoms of different elements can be identified my atomic weight, atoms cannot be destroyed, created, or divided. He created the first table of elements including their atomic weights Attended many schools, became a physics professor. Contribution to the history of the atomic structure: Calculated the ratio of the electrical charge to the mass of particles. He also discovered isotopes in stable elements. Cathode Ray Tube Experiment Cathode Ray Tube experiment was used to discover the electron Atomic Theory: Matter was composed of things smaller than atoms called "corpuscles" or electrons that were in the atom that had a positive charge. "J. J. Thomson Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/j-j-thomson-40039>. He studied at the Universities of Munich and Berlin, he received his doctorate in philosophy. Contribution to the history of the atomic structure: Planks constant- describes the behavior of particles and waves on the atomic scale, including the particle aspect of light. "Max Planck (German Physicist)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/462888/Max-Planck>. Atomic Theory Contribution: Quantum theory: He showed that light must be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed blackbody radiation. Atoms emit quanta in discrete amounts. Black-body radiation curves We cannot, he said, always assign to an electron a position in space at a given time, nor follow it in its orbit, so that we cannot assume that the planetary orbits postulated by Niels Bohr actually exist. Mechanical quantities, such as position, velocity, etc. should be represented, not by ordinary numbers, but by abstract mathematical structures called "matrices" and he formulated his new theory in terms of matrix equations. Atomic Theory Attended Maximillian School at Munich until 1920, when he went to study physics and began to work with Niels Bohr in 1924 at the University of Copenhagen. When he was released from England after WWII in 1948, he reorganized and renamed the Institute for Physics at Göttingen as Max Planck Institute for Physics, where he went on to win the Nobel prize for Physics in 1932 for his theory on quantum mechanics. "Werner Heisenberg - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 23 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1932/heisenberg-bio.html Millikan studied all over the U.S. and even at the University od Berlin and Göttingen, and eventually taught as a professor in Chicago in 1910, where he wrote many books on the many discoveries he made in science. One of his earlier successes was the discovery of the charge carried by the electron, he did this by using the "falling drop" method, this helped him prove that the quantity was constant for all electrons. This discovery ultimately led to his atomic structure of electricity. "Robert A. Millikan - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 23 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1923/millikan-bio.html Rutherford began an early education at Nelson Colligate school at 16 and then went through many schools before being awarded an 1851 Exhibition Science Scholarship to study under J.J. Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory. Thomson and him began to work together on many different scientific researches, which led to his discovery of the nucleus using scattered alpha rays. According to him practically the whole mass of the atom and at the same time all positive charge of the atom is concentrated in a minute space at the centre. "Ernest Rutherford - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 23 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html While still a student at Copenhagen University, he sought out the reward for a solution to a specific scientific problem. He won the gold medal on a piece conducted on the surface tension of oscillating fluids. Then his work became very theoretical. He studied under Sir J.J. Thomson and Professor Rutherford while continuing his own work. HE helped both men with their atomic structure research and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922 because of his work in theoretical physics, he eventually became the President of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences. "Niels Bohr - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 23 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1922/bohr-bio.html Other models.. nucleus Nuclear Model Oil drop experiment Gold Foil Experiment Indivisible/Solid Sphere Model
(earliest model) He graduated from the Honours School of Physics in 1911 and spent the next two years under Rutherford in the Physical Laboratory in Manchester. He was awarded the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship to continue his studies. After experimenting with radioactivity, he discovered the neutron. Discovering the neutron led to discover fission. Scientist began splitting atoms to aid in the atomic bomb. "Biography." James Chadwick -. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html>. Atomic Theory: Belived that the atomic mass of an element was more than the mass of positively charged particles. He knew that electrons just made a small part of the mass, so he knew there was something else which led to the discovery of the neutral charged particle. Experiment that led to neutron Apreciated sciences, German poetry, and grammar. He was also a physics proffesor for many schools. Aided in the wave theory, said that all subatomic particles exhibit wave-like properties. Used the quantum and wave mechanics to determine that the elctron orbits the nucleus in certain ways. Schrödinger's cat "Biography." Erwin SchrÃ¶dinger -. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1933/schrodinger-bio.html>. Had degrees in history and science, was in the military, he also specialized in theoretical physics Aided in the study of wave mechanics and the way that the electron moves "Biography." Louis De Broglie -. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1929/broglie.html>. He believed that electrons could act as waves and particles, like light. Certain energy, frequency, and wave lenght was determined by number of electrons.