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Middle East Timeline
Transcript of Middle East Timeline
Conflict in the Middle East
1900-1917: Zionism and early Jewish immigration to Israel.
1915 - 1916: Hussein-McMahon Letters: British encourage Arab uprisings against the Ottoman Empire.
May 16th, 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement: Sets the modern borders of the Middle East - determined by the French and the British.
June 1916: Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Turks.
Nov. 2, 1917: Balfour Declaration: British state support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1914 - 1918: WWI = the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
1918: The Capture of Damascus on October 1, 1918: frees Arabia from Ottoman Rule.
1919: February after WWI, Treaty of Versailles is formed, Emir Feisel makes a case for Arabic-self rule in the area, but is rebuffed.
June elections for a Syrian National Congress.
1920-1922: League of Nations divides former Ottoman territories into multiple territories to be owned by European countries.
1920: Feisel leads rebellion following his failed proposal and the SNC crowns him King of Greater Syria. French eject him. San Ramo Conference splits up this ‘kingdom’ with Syria and Lebanon under French Rule. The French proclaim this area of their control, ‘Greater Lebanon’.
1955: Syria becomes closer allies with Egypt after Presidency falls to Shukri al-Quwatli.
uly 1956: Second Arab-Israeli war begins
1958: Syria and Egypt join the United Arab Republic.
1961: A group of Syrian Army officers grows upset with Egyptian dominance; seize Damascus.
1963: Baath party regains power over Syria. Amin al-Hafez becomes President.
June 2nd, 1964: PLO is formed.
966: A coup led by Salah Jadid overthrows Amin al-Hafez, Hafez al-Assad is new minister of defense.
1967: U.S. sells Iran their first nuclear research reactor
June 5th, 1967: “Six Day War” Occurs.
967: 250’000 Palestinians become displaced as a result of the war.
Nov. 22nd, 1967: UN passes Resolution 242; “inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war”.
1981:Iran begins uranium conversion experiments
1982: Muslim Brotherhood, Sunni rebels, incite uprising in Hama- violently put down by Syrian Government. Casualties of 20,000 civilians.
August 15th, 1984 - 1999: 1st insurgency - The PKK launched its first armed insurgency.
1985: Iranium Contra-Scandal
Dec. 9th, 1987: First Palestinian intifada begins
1988: Al-Qaeda is formed; led by Osama bin laden
Sep. 13th, 1993: Oslo Peace Accord is signed by Israel and the PLO
1994: Assad’s son and successor Basil dies in a car accident.
Sep. 28th, 1995: Oslo II Accords are signed between Israel and the PLO; grants Palestinians parts of the West Bank and Gaza
Nov. 5th, 1995: Prime Minister of Israel is assassinated
1999-2004: Unilateral Cease-fire; After the 1st insurgency, the PKK declared in 1999 that their forces would fully withdraw from the Republic of Turkey and declared the formal end of the war. The PKK also said that they would switch its strategy to using peaceful methods to achieve the objectives.
1999: ISIS formed.
Sep. 29th, 2000: Second intifada begins
2000: Hafez al- Assad dies. Bashar al-Assad takes power. 600 political prisoners are released.
2001: Muslim Brotherhood announces they are starting activity again. Arrests of pro-reform activists. The Crisis Cell, a team for crushing any upset of rebellion against the government, is formed.
Aug. 27th 2001: Israel assassinates the Leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
September 9th, 2001: Twin Towers terrorist attack
Oct. 17th, 2001: PFLP assassinated Israeli Minister of Tourism
2001 - 2014: Operation Enduring Freedom
2002: Iranian exiles revealed two hidden nuclear facility at Natanz and Arak
Mar. 29th - Apr. 21st, 2002: Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield; invades and occupies much of the west bank
July 22nd, 2002: Israel assassinates the military leader of Hamas
Oct. 14th, 2003: Geneva Accords - politicians from both countries release a symbolic peace agreement
2003: Iran agrees to suspend enrichment activities, after talks with Germany, France, and the United Kingdom
2003: US threatens to put sanctions on Syria if they don’t start “making the right decisions” Syria still denies creating chemical weapons and aiding fugitives.
June 1st, 2004: 2nd Insurgency; The PKK resumes its armed activities and rebelling because they claim that the Turkish government was ignoring their calls for negotiations and Turkey armed forces were still attacking the PKK. This was known the Second Insurgency of 2004-2012.
2004: Iran sign Paris Accord with the EU-3 promising a suspension of enrichment activities in exchange for security, political, and economic assurances.
2004: US imposes economic sanctions on Syria because of Syrian support for terrorism.
Aug 22nd, 2005: Israel removes the last Jewish settlement from Gaza
2005: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes the president of Iran. Days later, Iran continues its uranium conversion program at the Isfahan nuclear complex.
2005: IAEA Board of Governors passes resolution reporting Iranian noncompliance with NPT safeguards agreement
2006: Iran grows their nuclear program and opens second 164-centrifuge cascade.
2006: UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1737 imposing sanctions on Iran for failure to stop uranium enrichment.
Jan. 26th, 2006: Hamas wins the Palestinian election
July - Aug. 2006: Israel/Lebanon War
June 10th - 18th, 2007: Hamas takes over Gaza - Israel blockades Gaza
Nov. 27th, 2007: Annapolis Peace Conference - road map for permanent peace
2007: Iran ignores UN Security Council deadline to stop its nuclear development program.
Dec. 27th, 2008: Operation Case Lead - Israeli bombardment and occupation of Gaza
Jan. 21st, 2009: Israel announces a unilateral ceasefire and leaves Gaza
2010 - 2016: Continued skirmishes and rocket attacks between the opposing states
2010: Arab Spring Rebellion begins.
2011: Osama Bin Laden is killed.
2011: Protests for democracy in Syria break out after teenagers are arrested and tortured for painting revolutionary sayings on the wall of a school. The protesters are shot down. The nation calls for Assad to step down. April: Security raids a sit-in. May: tanks enter cities. June: Police and soldiers ordered to shoot protesters join them. July: Assad sends in troops to Northern Hama and other areas with governors seen unfit because of the rebellious activity. December: 2 suicide bombers kill 44 outside a security building in Damascus. August: Obama calls on Assad to resign.
2012: Rebel Brigades are formed to fight the government for control of the cities and land of Syria. These fights reach Damascus and Aleppo. The Supreme Military Council of the Free Syrian Army is formed. The UN Security Council works with Komi Annan to form a plan for peace. The Free Syrian Army detonates bombs that destroy security chiefs in Damascus and they take North Aleppo in July. National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces is formed in Qatar and is recognized as a “legitimate representation” of the Syrian people.
Jan. 25th, 2012: Peace talks in Jordan end without progress
Nov. 14th, 2012: Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense against Hamas militants in the Gaza Strip
2013: 6 world powers make a deal with Iran to temporarily freeze their nuclear program
2013: Syrian Government bombs the northern part of Raqqa after rebels take it. The US and UK pledge to provide non-military aid to rebels. Weapons inspectors discover that chemical weapons were used in attack in Damascus that killed over 300 people. December: US and Britain halt aid with the notice that extremist groups had taken over bases of FSA.
1922: Syria is divided: three parts, separate areas for different ethnic groups: Alawai on coast, Druze in south.
1925-1926: Upset over imperialist French rule and growing Syrian nationalism in the area= uprising. France retaliates by bombing Damascus.
1928: June 9, 1928 a draft for a Syrian Constitution is rejected by the French High Commissioner- breeds more unrest and anger from Syrian nationalists.
1933-1936: Mass Jewish immigration to Palestine as a result of Nazism in Europe.
1936: France agrees to ‘Syrian Independence’ - then signs a treaty that gives them power to maintain economic and military control.
1936-1939: Arab Revolt against the British.
1939-1945: WWII and Jewish resistance to the British forces.
1941-1945: Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Husayni collaborates with Nazis; anti-Jewish and anti-allied agenda.
1941: Allied troops occupy Syria- promise to abolish the French mandate in the area.
1945: French are slow to leave Syria and protests ensue.
1946: The last of French troops leave Syria.
1947: Baath Party is formed: “unity, freedom, socialism” Party with the goal to overthrow the European-controlled governments with radical Arabic nationalism.
Nov. 29th, 1947: UN Partitions Palestine into Separate Jewish and Palestinian States
April 9th, 1948: Jewish forces attack the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin; marks the first time Jewish forces fought with the goal of permanently ridding an area of Arabs in order to insure their own viability
May 14th, 1948: Israel declares themselves independent
1948 - 1949: 700’000 Palestinians become refugees after the war
May 15th, 1948: First Arab-Israeli war begins
Iran Nuclear Deal
1970: Hafez al-Assad takes power, discarding the president and imprisoning Salah Jadid.
1970: PLO is expelled from Jordan and moves to Lebanon.
1971: Assad is elected President for a 7-year term.
1973: Assad repeals the constitutional requirement of a Muslim president creating upheaval and accusations and riots of an atheist regime- these riots are quelled using militarism.
Oct. 28th, 1974: Arab League recognizes the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people
1975: U.S. approves Irans plan for uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing facilities
1979: Iranian revolution: citizens upset with prime minister, even though U.S supports him. Iranian hostage crisis.
1979 - 1989: Soviet-Afghan
1978 - Present: Afghan Civil War
1980: Muslim groups begin protests in major Syrian cities. A Muslim Brotherhood member attempts to assassinate President Assad.
2014: Peace talks in Geneva fail. June: ISIS claims a caliphate in part of Syria reaching Aleppo. Air strikes from the US and Arabic countries begin strikes at ISIS. Syrian government says it will not allow WHO to deliver medical supplies to parts of Syria held by rebels.
July 8th, 2014: Israel launches Operation Protective Edge against Hamas militants in Gaza in response to rocket attacks against Israel
Aug. 26th, 2014: Egypt brokers a one-month ceasefire to halt violence
Mar. 16th, 2015: Israeli Prime Minister officially disregards the Two-State Solution.
2015: Iran agrees to nuclear limits within their nuclear program.
2015: Russia begins air strikes in Syria with pretense of targeting ISIS but actually fighting rebel groups. Homs (third largest city) is evacuated by rebels and once again government controlled.
2015-present: PKK Rebellions; The PKK are still rebelling against Turks’ armed forces to this day to gain freedom and independence.
2016: Cease-fire broker so humanitarian aid can reach Aleppo and other cities. Refugee Crisis and human rights abuses are at a level higher than ever before.
Sep. 14th, 2016: United States commits $38 Billion over ten years to military assistance for Israel.
By: Sam Stockett, Griffin Cardwell, Emma Sheets, Brigid Hanley, and Leo Domingo
Iran Nuclear Deal
French Control of Syria through 1920s
Baath Party formed in 1947 still supports Assad
United Arab Republic Formed 1958
Assad is Minister of Defense in 1966
Hafez al-Assad takes Syrian Presidency in 1970.
Muslim Brotherhood is violently put down by Assad regime in Syria.
1982 Hama Uprising
1999: ISIS is formed
2000: Bashar al-Assad takes power