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Industrial Revolution

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Lara Ziener

on 29 August 2014

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution

Inventions in the Industrial Revolution
A blast from the past

Spinning Jenny
at the time, cotton production could not keep up with the demand of the population
multi-spindle spinning frame
invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in England
reduced the amount of the work needed to produce yarn
The invention of the spinning jenny ended the system of the cotton industry.
Many people were thrown into complete poverty and destitution
--> due to the spinning jenny, which made own work unnecessary
Sewing machine
Not just for the clothing, but it started becoming an important part in the manufacturing of other goods.
Furniture with upholstery,
automobile seats,
curtains and drapes,
towels, toys, even books
industry began to make more self/automated machines
increased productivity (unprecedented working speed)
gave rise to the textile industry
Bessemer process
first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel
1855: patented by Henry Bessemer
revolutionized steel manufacture
the price of steel decreased from £40 to £6-7
---> this made it affordable to build bridges and railroads from steel, making them last longer and improving the infrastructure
He did not invent it, but was the first one to patent it: Alexander Graham Bell
enabled people to talk directly with each other across long distances
Essential Element: -microphone to speak into an earphone which reproduced the voice of a distant person
faster than the telegraph
made the trade between goods easier, since transactions could be made faster
increased trade, strengthening the economy
Light bulb
Thomas Edison did not invent the light bulb but he did invent the first commercially viable one
his lightbulb was able to last longer than any other
it was safer and cheaper than it's forerunners
the first light bulbs were invented back in 1803
workers could continue working after sunset --> more goods were produced
First powered airplane flight
first airplane flight not powered by wind made by Orville Wright, December 1903, in North Carolina (U.S.)
first designed kites and gliders, but moved onto the idea of airplanes with engines
at that time, the invention of powered airplanes was not important, because these airplanes only flew about 100m
this invention was though vital in kicking of the science behind it, leading to the airplanes of today, which are important for the economy, by transporting people, goods and materials
The Model T.
first affordable automobile produced by Henry Ford's company
the efficient fabrication was made possible by the new invention, the assembly line
smaller companies had also started publicizing Ford's cars and the concept of "automobiling"
the price went down from 900$ to 350$ in 5 years (1909-1914) because of the improvement of the assembly line.
"How did the transition to new manufacturing process change the society and the economy? "
Steam engine
First steam engine wasn't very useful, but the idea was important for the future.
It improved the transportation of goods, to be brought faster from one place to the another. It also increased the speed of steamboats.
The steam engine was very important for the industrial revolution ,because they gave the factories regular supply of power.
James Watt invented a better steam engine,which was more efficient, practical and it produced more power with less waste.
Cotton gin
Vaccines for diseases
The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney
It removes cotton from its seeds.
Earlier versions of the cotton gin already existed since the first century.
The cotton gin made the job of the slaves more easier
--> better working conditions

was invented and was patented by Samuel Morse
on January 11, 1838, the first electromagnetic telegraph made its public display
by 1844 the telegraph began using paper type and electric currents, that left imprints on the paper
Dynamite was invented by the chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel and patented in 1867
"A new way of blowing things up" This is, how many people understood the idea of this new explosive.
"The Nobel Peace Prize" was set up after the death of Alfred, he left a huge fortune behind
the money was used to fund the "NPP", to reform peace, for medicine and science
Seed Drill
Due to the development in the textile and machinery, many people from the country-side moved to bigger cities where they could work in a factory.
This led to people living very near to each other.
As there were few facilities to remove sewage and the living conditions weren't that good, the diseases spread.
Edward Jenner of England developed a vaccine against smallpox, which was a common disease back then.
an increase in style, fashion,
an economic increase due to the new material on the market.
Up until the time, the seed drill was invented, farmers used to go around their fields throwing seeds around.
This method wasn't very good, because it didn't give a very even distribution and was therefore not very efficient.
Jethro Tull invented the seed drill, which made farming a lot easier, faster a
change from an agrarian society to an industrial economy
Rapid increases in technology
Standardization of production processes
lower transportation costs -->infrastructure
Development of improved transportation systems: (canals and railroads).
Better and cheaper intermediate goods
Vast increase in global trade.

http://www.edisonmuckers.org/thomas-edison-lightbulb/ - 27.8
http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/quick-history-edison-bulbsretr-150191 -27.8
http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item107855.html -26.8
http://essaymania.com/114144/disease-and-vaccinations-in-the-industrial-revolution - 27.8
http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/004f.html -27.8
http://targetstudy.com/knowledge/invention/39/seed-drill.html 26.8
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Bessemer_process.html 26.8
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/63067/Bessemer-process 27.8
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/bessemer-process.html 28.8
http://railroadandsteamengine.weebly.com/impact.html 27.8
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1505/features/climateindustrial.htm 27.8
http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph 27.8
http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventors/a/telephone.htm 27.8
http://courses.educ.ubc.ca/etec540/Sept04/kangd/Researchproject/inventionoftelephone.htm 26.8
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-newcentury/5092 27.8
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Model_T 26.8
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1908-1927-ford-model-t.htm 28.8
http://corporate.ford.com/our-company/heritage/heritage-news-detail/672-model-t 27.8
http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/articles/ArticleView.cfm?AID=31 26.8
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/wright.htm 26.8
http://wrightflyer.umwblogs.org/impact-of-wright-flyer/ 27.8
http://sewingmachine.umwblogs.org/the-sewing-machine-its-impact-on-america/ 27.8
https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Sewing_machine.html 26.8
http://www.brooklynbridgeaworldwonder.com/ 26.8
https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Assembly_line.html 28.8
http://history1900s.about.com/od/1910s/a/Ford--Assembly-Line.htm 27.8
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamite 26.8

Different Models of the Model T.
The seed drill in use.
The steam engines structure
Steam engine in a locomotive
Spinning jenny's buildup
Removing seeds from the cotton with the cotton gin.
The original sewing machine.
Alexander Graham Bell at a public demonstration of the telephone.
The original telephone.

Alfred Nobel
Thomas Edison and the 14 hours-lasting light bulb
The first commercially viable light bulb
Preparation of dynamite
Orville Wright
First flight of the Wright Flyer
Full transcript