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Media concept: Institutions
Transcript of Media concept: Institutions
How does the BBC promote and distribute its products?
What issues does the BBC need to think about?
Justifying their license fee:
Catering to different audiences (Cbeebies/BBC Three/Radio 1/ GCSE Bitesize)
Wasting money (Star salaries)
Broadcasting offensive material (Ofcom)
The concept of Institutions is all about the companies who make media texts.
BBC Case Study
The BBC is one of the biggest media institutions in the UK.
It is a
Pubic Service Broadcaster
which means the television channel should ‘provide a range of high quality, innovative and educational programming which appeals to a range of cultures and audiences’.
The BBC has a remit to "educate, entertain and inform" (Reithian Values)
Examples of cross media promotion
Examples of Synergy
How does the BBC make money?
TV license (funded by the public)
Need to negotiate the license fee with the government, so they need to have good viewing figures.
Sell programming to other countries through BBC worldwide
You will need to think about:
How these companies make money
How they sell, promote and distribute their products
Their brand identity
What values and ideologies they promote.
The ownership of media institutions
How they are regulated
To do this, the BBC creates a wide range of content across the media platforms.
Television and film
Can you brainstorm some BBC content that either educates, entertains or informs?
Cinemas and film production companies are facing increasing competition from at home cinema systems.
What are film companies doing to make more profit?
Cross media promotion
Using their various branches to promote their products
Different technologies on one device (iplayer/twitter/websites/radio)
A brand can be a company, a product or even a person.
The BBC is a very established brand that also has several other brands within its company. Top Gear, Doctor Who, BBC Three and BBC radio are all brands.
A brand identity is how a brand wants to be percieved.
What ideas do they represent?
Apple's brand identity is
passion for technology
excellent customer service
a tribe to be a part of
What is the BBC's brand identity?
Values and Ideologies
Values and ideologies are beliefs held by society that are often taken for granted and seen as "the norm" and "common sense".
Dominant ideologies in the UK:
It's okay to be gay
Men and women should have equal opportunities
Freedom of speech is important
What values and ideologies does the BBC promote?
Remember - it is paid for by the public!
Men and women are equal
News should be balanced and unbiased
Inclusive of different sexualities
Poor Flora wasn’t PC enough for Beeb
When this series of The Great British Bake Off began, the BBC was proud it was the most inclusive, multi-cultural line-up ever.
Now we’re down to the final three, it’s certainly a PC triumph. We are left with Muslim mum Nadiya Hussain, gay doctor Tamal Ray, and New Man Ian Cumming. Poor Flora Shedden never stood a chance. She was far too middle class — and was booted off this week after her chocolate carousel was deemed sub-standard.
Perhaps if she’d made a chocolate mosque, she’d have stood a better chance.
Clash of ideologies
BBC vs Daily Mail
Look at the institutions involved in your coursework
Do those record labels/publishing companies have a Brand Identity?
Do the bands/artists promote any values or ideologies?
Actors from BBC shows being interviewed on other BBC shows.
Channels that are not public service broadcasters are part of the
The Free Market
is an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses
Why do you think that some supporters of the free market don't like the BBC?
Other BBC shows being recommended to you after watching something on iplayer
Doctor Who competitions on Blue Peter
BBC stars competing on shows such as Strictly.
Sony own a film production studio, and also a company that make phones and other technology.
Other examples of synergy
When considering distribution, we also need to understand
What is a media conglomerate?
Conglomerate - usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries
Horizontal and Vertical integration
Vertical integration is often criticised because people are concerned about too much
Vertical integration applies to the BBC because they have absolutely everything required to complete a production. They have BBC Worldwide which sells program overseas, BBC DVD and iPlayer, BBC Television (BBC1/2/3/4), BBC Studios and Post Production (studio and editing) and BBC creative departments. All these departments work together to create what we know as the BBC.
However, production is often outsourced to independent production companies such as Red and Shine.
The values and ideologies that a company promotes can be called their "brand values"
What a company wants the audience to think of them is their "brand identity"
2016 was Disney's most profitable year to date.
How does horizontal integration link to this?
What different production companies/studios do they own?
Are the values that the BBC promotes becoming out of step with UK dominant ideologies?
Right wing, nationalist ideologies are becoming the "common sense" ideologies, not just in the UK, but all over the world.
It is important to always consider who owns a media institution.
Are they a psb or commercially funded?
Are they part of a media conglomerate? If so, what else does that company own?
Who owns media institutions informs their biases. BBC as a PSB is supposed to be impartial.
In some countries, such as Russia and North Korea, the media is largely controlled by the government.
How do you think the media in these countries reports about the government?
What does Rupert Murdoch own?
Why are some people concerned about the amount of media institutions that he owns?
Media regulation and self regulation
Different types of media are controlled by laws and their own rules.
Film industry - BBFC
Regulates broadcasting and communications networks. Follows the powers and duties set by parliament in the 2003 communications act.
Regulate TV and radio sector
Promotes the interests of citizens and consumers
People are protected from harmful and offensive material
People are being treated unfairly in television and radio programmes, from having their privacy invaded and from offensive and potentially harmful effects from radio or television.
What is IPSO?
The Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) is the independent regulator for the newspaper and magazine industry in the UK. They hold newspapers and magazines to account for their actions, protect individual rights, uphold high standards of journalism and help to maintain freedom of expression for the press.
Newspapers and magazines choose to be a member of Ipso. This is self regulation.
Slander and Libel laws
Mccann's won £1/2M from Daily Mail/Star for saying they killed Maddie. Published apologies.
"We minimise the availability of online sexual abuse content. Specifically:
Child sexual abuse content hosted anywhere in the world.
Criminally obscene adult content hosted in the UK.
Non-photographic child sexual abuse images hosted in the UK.
The majority of our work focuses on the removal of child sexual abuse images and videos.
We work internationally to make the internet a safer place. We help victims of child sexual abuse worldwide by identifying and removing online images and videos of their abuse. We search for child sexual abuse images and videos and offer a place for the public to report them anonymously. We then have them removed. We’re a not-for-profit organisation and are supported by the global internet industry and the European Commission."
The Internet Watch Foundation
What you need to think about for institution questions - IBOP
I - Institution
B - Brand values/Brand identity
O - Ownership
Is it PSP or Commercial? Part of an Independent organisation or Conglomerate? How does ownership limit or give freedom in the text production & content? How does ownership affect the production values and quality of the product?
P - Power and control
What dominant ideologies are shown? Does this benefit the Institution?
Who regulates the institution?
Do the audience have any power?
Brand values/Brand identity
Power and control
Power and control
What opportunities are there for synergy, and making money from the John Lewis advert?
How does the Planet earth 2 trailer promote The BBC's brand image?
Globalisation refers to the way in which in contemporary society, distant countries are inter-related and connected together by trade, communication and cultural experiences.
TV, film and media products bring developing countires into direct contact with western media products.
It has been argued that in an increasingly globalised world, there is a danger that local cultures become eroded and replaced with a single, standard culture. This is cultural homogenisation.
Marshall McLuhan predicted that through technology, the world would become a "global village"
Cultural imperialism is a process by which one country dominates other countries' media consumption and consequently dominates their values and ideologies.
Criticisms of cultural imperialism
There is no doubt that the USA (and to a lesser degree the UK) export a large amount of film and television programming; however many critics of cultural imperialism question whether this does have a homogenising effect other countries. Nigeria, India and Japan all have thriving industries of their own.
Also, audiences are not just passive observers (Stuart Hall reception theory), they are capable of making their own judgements.
I - BBC
: high quality, British, multicultural, entertaining,
: inclusive, education is important, men and
women are equal, British heritage is important
: Entertain, educate and inform
O - PSB: public service broadcaster paid for by
P - regulated by OFCOM and the government.
Audience has a lot of power as they pay the license fee.
Refer to examples in the text to support your ideas
Don't be too rigid with paragraph structure.
One way that the trailer promotes the BBC's brand identity is by.....