Transcript of Korea: History, Tradition, Culture, and Places
Korea's History, Tradition, and Places By: Marsha Park :) First New Year Independence Day Children's Day :) Hangul Day Chuseok White Day There are two Korean New Years because Koreans go by two calendars. One being the one people use in the West and the other is the Lunar Calendar. For the first New Year, Koreans would get together with family and share time and also the usual chatter. There are some old traditions to follow for this day. One is to visit the oldest member of your family and bow towards them to show respect and wish them a long life. This would normally occur on New Year's Eve. On January 1, people will pay respect to their ancestors by offering food/wine. This ceremony is called Jaesa. The beginning would start with the names of the ancestors pinned to a board. The oldest family member bows first and offers wine to the ancestor(s). Then the names are buried. Later, relatives would talk about old times and eat food. The tradition on New Year's Day is Duk Gook, a type of soup with rice cake. Of course, Kimchi will be present. Independence Day is next on the list. It is similar to the 4th of July, but the Korean Independence day represents the time when Koreans declared ourselves independent from the "evil" Japanese rule (no offense to anyone Japanese or half Japanese). It is on March 1 of every year and began on March 1, 1919. Every year, we proudly stand for our independence from all the foreign rule. Chuseok is the same as America's "harvest moon". It takes place on the 15th day of the 8th month going by the lunar calendar, so on August 15. It is a day where the full moon appears larger and may look orange. The holiday is celebrated in many Asian countries. Children's Day is on May 5th of every year which is also Cinco De Mayo here. Children are given money and taken on outings for this was our day. That is why it is called Children's day. Yes, I know you are jealous and wouldn't mind getting money for free, eating for free, going places for free. We are just that lucky. Hangul Day is also called the Korean Alphabet Day. It is on October 9 of every year in South Korea while January 15 in North Korea. It is just a day where we celebrate our birth of our language! This is the day one month after Valentine's Day.This is the day where the girls feelings are answered! Meaning it won't be one-sided but mutual! Guys would give a much more expensive and/or chocolate to the girl. The box would normally be a white color. This is celebrated on March 14. Korea's History from the beginning to today and towards the FUTURE! The Silla Kingdom, marks the start of Korea's cultural development. Despite China's influences, Silla remained more tribal in culture. Society divided into classes with a large semi-slave population supporting the members of a ruling class or of the nobility minority. Warlords began collecting power bases to the north before finally overthrowing Silla and founding a new kingdom, Goryeo. During the Goryeo period, Korea's English name was obtained. During this time, the government arranged laws and introduced civil service systems. Buddhism spread throughout the peninsula. Koryo (Goryeo) were also subjected to external threats most from the Mongols. In 1231, the Mongols invaded Korea, forcing the royal family to flee to Kanghwa Island near Seoul. After 25 years of struggling, the family finally surrendered. 150 years continued the Goryeo era, but under the Mongols. As they (Mongols) declined in power so did Goryeo. In 1392, a Korean general, Yi Song-gye, was sent to China to campaign against the Ming rulers, but instead of doing as he was told, he allied with the Chinese to overthrow the Korean king and set up his own dynasty. During the time of the Goryeo era, Korean perfected the art of celadon pottery. Joseon Dynasty, well, it was also known as the Yi dynasty, there was some history about this place in particular. The ruler of the Yi Dynasty moved the capital to the Hanyang-gun, which is now Seoul, Korea. The ruler moved it during the year of 1394 and adopted Confucianism as the country's official religion. What is Confucianism? Well Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius in th 6th-5th century BC. It is sometimes viewed as philosophy, religion. It is best understood as humanism neither denies nor slights Heaven. Followed by Chinese before extending to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Now, what was the result of this adoption? Buddhists lost much of their wealth and power. During this period of time, the Korean alphabet also known as Hangeul was invented by King Sejong the Great. A major highlight during this period was the invasions by the Japanese during the year 1592-1598 and also the Manchu's from the year 1627-1636. When Japanese and Western traders arrived during the 19th century, the Korean rulers tried to prevent from foreign trade by closing the borders. By doing this, we earned the nickname of the Hermit Kingdom. In 1876, the Japanese forced a series of Western-style trading agreements on Korea leading to Japan eventually annexing or adding into this country in 1910. Due to the growing anti-Japanese sentiment, in 1897, King Kojong declared himself to be the emperor of the Tehan Empire, an independent Korea. During the Russo-Japanese War which took place in 1904-1905, Japanese forces moved onto Korea's peninsula despite Korean declaration of neutrality. The signing of the Japan-Korea Protection Treaty in 1905 gave Japan virtual control over Korea, and in 1910 a Korean royal proclamation announced the annex by Japan. On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered causing the Korean peninsula to once again go under divided rule. The dividing were: The USSR occupied Korea's north of the 38th parallel, U.S occupied the south. Under the UN, a democratic government was established. It was called the Republic of Korea or South Korea in 148 with the capital called Seoul. The communists on the other hands established the Democratic People's Republic of Korea also known as North Korea with the capital called Pyongyang. On June 25, 1950, North Korean army invaded the south. This was the start of the Korean War. UN forces helped the South while communist Chinese helped the North. The War lasted three years which left millions dead on both sides. Students protested against the corrupt government. This caused Syngman Rhee to step down as president in 1960 Japan built up Korea's infrastructure or the basic especially the street and railroad system. However, the Japanese ruled with an iron fist and attempted to root out all elements of Korean culture from society. People were forced to adopt Japanese names, convert to Shinto (Native Japanese) religion, and were forbidden to use Korean language in schools and business. The Independence Movement on March 1 of 1919 was brutally repressed resulting in the killing of thousands, the imprisoning on tens of thousands, and destroying of hundreds of churches, temples, schools, and private homes. World War II, Japan siphoned, or draw off or transfer over a period of time, more and more of Korea's resources including the people to feed its Imperial war machine. In my opinion, Japan is bad. Forcing Korea to work for nothing in return=mean. This is only my opinion though. Goryeo Era 20th Century 1876-20th Century Joseon Era Famous Places To Visit In Korea When You Visit! Each place is a wonder with their own specialty, beauty, and uniqueness. To start off this lesson about Korea, let us start with not the History of Korea, but the holiday, traditions, and what you do on those specific days. It may seem long, but I hope this will answer your questions about Korea, if not, ask away :) Second New Year The second New Years is the Lunar New years. This is usually occurring in the month of February. On this special day, people would wear the traditional clothes called Hanbok. It is also a day relatives may also get together. People would exchange gifts, but the children would be the most excited for this day. Why, you ask? Well, because we usually get money on this day from family friends or relatives. Sometimes the Lunar and Solar New years are pretty common and involve similar traditions. The main idea is to wish everyone happy new year and good luck in the new year. The children when meeting older adults, would have to say, "Sae Bong Manne Badu Sae Yo" or in English "Happy New Year." Christmas Christmas has been a growing holiday in Korea. It is a little different here than the West. Many teens or the "younger people" will use Christmas to go out and party with their friends or their girlfriends/boyfriends then they will spend New Years with their family. Valentine's Day Valentine's Day is the usual. Celebrated on the 14th of February. Girls give chocolates and/or gifts to guys they admire. Same as here, but it is one-sided and GIRLS give it to GUYS. Black Day (NOT RACIAL) This is the day for the loners from Valentine's and White Day. This occurs two months after Valentines and a month after White Day. People (Friends) would gather with the person (you) and we would go celebrate by eating JaJang noodles which are the color black. This day isn't as popular as the other two, but is still celebrated! (especially for me TvT) This concludes the Tradition/Holidays Portion of my oral. First off, the places. Busan, Changwon, Daeju, Daeion, Incheon, Jeju, Kyongju, Masan, Pusan, and of course Seoul. Second, the wonders. The Changeokhung Palace, the Haeinsa Temple, the Kyonbok Palace, Mt. Sorak, Popchusa Temple, Pulguksa Temple,and Sokkuran at the Bulguksa Temple. If you ever visit Korea, please be sure to visit Seoul. It is big and crowded, but if you go on the Namsan tower, you see the whole place. Also, you should visit an island called Dokdo. A little information that I got from my parents about that island is that Japan claims that it belongs to them when it really belongs to Korea, but we have been fighting for it for years. There is also a song about it, but I am not planning to sing it. But it goes a little like this, Dokdo is our land, but in Korean. Korea is beautiful and if you go to Korea, safe travels! Silla Era A Little Extra Before Final There were many things I didn't know about Korea and as I did this project, I began to learn more and more. It is very interesting. I hope you enjoyed. Thank you. Works CitedFull transcript
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These three websites are citation for Korea's History: