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Cardiovascular

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Chantelle Shapcott

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular disease
Congenital heart disease (congenital heart defect) is an abnormality in your heart's structure that you're born with. Congenital heart disease was often fatal, but it's far more treatable today. Although congenital heart disease is often considered a childhood condition, advances in surgical treatment mean most babies who once died of congenital heart disease survive well into adulthood.
Cardiovascular
Disease
Aortic Arch Aneurysm
Heart Murmur Causes

Most heart murmurs are innocent: They are caused by blood flowing through healthy valves in a healthy heart and do not require treatment. However, heart murmurs can be caused by blood flowing through a damaged or overworked heart valve. Valvular abnormalities may be present at birth, may occur as part of the normal aging process, or may result from other heart problems, such as rheumatic fever, heart attacks, or infective endocarditis.
3 Types of Cardiovascular Disease
Acute
congenital
Self-Inflicted
Continuing with Aortic aneurysms
Aneurysms develop slowly over many years. Most patients have no symptoms until the aneurysm begins to leak or expand. The aneurysm may be found only when imaging tests are done for other reasons.

Symptoms often begin suddenly when:
The aneurysm grows quickly
The aneurysm tears open (called a rupture)
Blood leaks along the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection)

If the aneurysm presses on nearby structures, the following symptoms may occur:
Hoarseness
Swallowing problems
High-pitched breathing
Swelling in the neck
Other symptoms may include:
Chest or upper back pain
Clammy skin
Nausea and vomiting
Rapid heart rate
Sense of impending doom

Other Possible Causes of Heart Murmurs

Some common conditions can force your heart to beat faster,
changing the rate and amount of blood moving through your
heart and resulting in heart murmurs. You and your doctor should
monitor all of these conditions:

Pregnancy
Anemia
High blood pressure
Overactive thyroid
Fever

Tests for Heart Murmurs

Usually, heart murmurs are detected during a physical exam. Your doctor will be able to hear your heart murmur when listening to your heart with a stethoscope.

Your doctor may order one or more of the following tests to see whether your heart murmur is innocent or whether it is caused by acquired valve disease or a congenital defect:

Electrocardiogram (ECG), which measures the electrical activity of the heart
Chest X-rays to see if the heart is enlarged due to heart or valve disease
Echocardiography, which uses sound waves to map the heart structure
Treatment for a heart murmur depends on the cause. Many children and adults have harmless heart murmurs, which do not indicate disease and require no treatment. Sometimes, mitral valve prolapse requires no treatment, just periodic checkups by your doctor. When other conditions, such as high blood pressure, cause heart murmurs, your doctor will treat the underlying cause. Some types of heart valve disease may require medication or surgery. Here are some treatments your doctor may discuss with you:


*Prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics to reduce the risk of heart infection, typically taken before dental work or some kinds of surgery. This is not frequently recommended.
*Drug treatments, including:
*Anticoagulants to prevent blood clots
*Antiarrhythmics to control irregular heartbeat
*Beta-adrenergic blockers to control palpitations (rapid heartbeat or heart fluttering)
*Vasodilators to relax and open the blood vessels, thus reducing the pressure against which the heart must pump
*Diuretics to remove excess salt and water from the body, making it easier for your heart to pump
*Surgery to correct congenital heart defects
*Surgery to correct certain types of heart valve disease
Heart murmurs are abnormal sounds during your heartbeat cycle — such as whooshing or swishing — made by turbulent blood in or near your heart. These sounds can be heard with a stethoscope. A normal heartbeat makes two sounds like "lubb-dupp" (sometimes described as "lub-DUP"), which are the sounds of your heart valves closing.

Heart murmurs can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in life.

Heart Murmurs
Congenital Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease

Treatment or prevention
Most of it is in our hands, our lifestyle
high blood cholesterol
high blood pressure
overweight, obesity
diabetes
sleep apnea
age
family history
Diet
Exercise
Alcohol
Smoke
Don´t smoke
Don´t drink
for men, not more than 2 drinks a day, for women not more than 1 drink a day.
Eat whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes,
fish, some meat, seeds and nuts.
Avoid saturated and trans fats, sugar or high fructose corn syrup, salt, additives, pesticides, prepared food, fast food, and refined grains.
Stress
Learn stress management
and avoid stimulants
Do some physical activity for
at least 30 minutes
at least three times a week.
Medicine
anticoagulants, also called blood thinners
aspirin and other anticlotting medicines
ACE inhibitors
beta blockers
calcium channel blockers
nitroglycerin
glycoprotein
statins
fish oil and other supplements
high in omega-3 fatty acids.
Angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Procedures and surgery
Risk factors:
Check ups
If you have some of the risk factors, even if not!
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

* Also known as coronary heart disease.
* The leading cause of death in the United States! Affects
over 5 million Americans.

Caused from a
buildup of plaque in the arteries
the
restricts blood flow
to the heart and its muscles!

An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs in the part of the body's largest artery (the aorta) that passes through the chest.

Causes
The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the arteries. This condition is more common in people with high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who smoke.

Other risk factors for a thoracic aneurysm include:
Changes caused by age
Connective tissue disorders
Inflammation of the aorta
Injury from falls or motor vehicle accidents
Syphilis
Causes of Ischemic Heart Disease
Coronary Artery is the most common type of heart disease and cause of heart attacks.
Damage to inner layer of a coronary artery
Smoking
High Blood Pressure
High Cholesterol
Diabetes

Abdominal obesity
Not enough fruits and veggies
Lack of Exercise
Drinking too much Alcohol
Stress

Radiation Therapy for the Chest (used in certain types of Cancer)
Plaque buildup happens early in life and happens over a lifetime
Plaque is made up of excess cholesterol, calcium and other substances in your blood
Cholesterol plaque can build up in the arteries of the heart and cause “ischemia”
Heart does not receive enough blood flow and oxygen

ACUTE CORONARY
SYNDROME
Acute is the medical term for an illness or medical problem that begins and progresses rapidly. It may also refer to an illness that begins and ends quickly.
an umbrella term for situations where the blood supplied to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked.
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