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Transcript of Physics
Newton's Laws will be studied in the "Mechanics" chapter of the course. Mechanics Mechanics is classified in three divisions: Statics: It is concerned with equillubrium state of bodies under the action of forces. When a system of bodies is in static equilibrium, the system is either at rest, or moving at constant velocity through its center of mass.
It can also be understood as the study of the forces affecting nonmoving objects. Dynamics: A chapter of mechanics dealing with the behavior of material objects under the action of external forces. Kinematics It is the branch of physics (mechanics) concerned with the motions of objects without being concerned with the forces that cause the motion. Optics Optics is a branch of physics that is concerned with behaviour and properties of light. It mostly cares about visible light, since it’s easiest to perceive and thus research and understand, but other electromagnetic waves are also involved- from x-rays through infrared and ultraviolet to radio and micro waves. Want to know how does optical fiber work? Don't miss this video! Optics subfields are: - Geometrical optics, the study of light as rays
- Physical optics, the study of light as waves
- Quantum optics, the study of light as particles Acoustics Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). Acoustics is a very large field, and some of its subfields are: Measurement and instrumentation
Biomedical acoustics Environmental noise
Structural acoustics and vibration Thermodynamics It is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system. Thermodynamics is only concerned with large scale observations. It is based on three fundamental laws: 1. Energy can neither be created nor it can be destroyed though it can be converted from one form to the other.
2. Heat energy can be transferred only from body at high temperature to the body at lower temperature.
3. Entropy of the body at absolute zero is zero and it can never be negative. Some of them are: Electromagnetism Describes the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields. It can be divided into:
Electrostatics, the study of interactions between charges at rest, and
Electrodynamics, the study of interactions between moving charges and radiation. Now, let's move on to some important concepts: Difference between a vector and an scalar quantity A vector quantity is a quantity that is fully described by both magnitude and direction.
On the other hand, a scalar quantity is a quantity that is fully described by its magnitude. Direction of a vector Magnitude of a vector Potential and Kinetic Energy Potencial energy Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object. Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object that has motion - whether it is vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another). Free-Body Diagrams Free-body diagrams are diagrams used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object in a given situation. Applied case:
Physics of skateboarding - The Hippie Jump In the hippie jump, a skateboarder rides along on a flat horizontal surface at a certain velocity Vh. He then jumps straight up without exerting any horizontal force on the board. This allows him to fly through the air at the same horizontal velocity as the board (also moving at Vh). As a result, the board remains directly below him and he is able to land on top of it. The figure below illustrates this. The physics of skateboarding in this trick can be described by the equations of projectile motion, where only the vertical component of velocity changes, since gravity only acts in the vertical direction. The horizontal component of velocity Vh of the skateboarder stays the same since there is no force acting on him in the horizontal direction (neglecting air resistance). The friction force acting on the board as it rolls along (due to contact with the ground) is small and doesn't slow the board down appreciably. As a result, its velocity is approximately the same as the horizontal velocity of the skateboarder. This allows the skateboarder to land back on the board. University San Carlos of Guatemala
Technical English I
Created by: Andrea Grimaldi