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Renaissance: The Rise of New Monarchies

AP Euro
by

Kristin Palomares

on 22 June 2014

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Transcript of Renaissance: The Rise of New Monarchies

Where?
When?
What?
Arose in Western Europe
Spain, France, and England
Developed in the 14th C
Developed towards the end of the Middle Ages
All of the following contributed to the development of new monarchies...
Black Plague
100 Years' War
Dissolution of the feudal system
Rise of towns and cities
Rise of the middle class
Sovereign states with centralized authority where decisions are made by a king and power is exercised through his agents
Characteristics
of
New Monarchies

Standing armies instead of the feudal system
Centralized authority in the hands of the king
Took power away from representative bodies
Parliament in England, Cortes in Spain, and Estates General in France
Taxes on the peasantry and borrowed money
Created royal courts and made rule hereditary
Diplomacy between states
Professional bureaucracy made up of the middle class instead of nobility
Black Death & 100 Years' War left nation...
depopulated
commercially ruined
agriculturally weak
1422-1461
Reorganized royal council to include middle class men
reconciled waring factions
Established a permanent professional army
Expelled the English
Strengthened royal finances
Gabelle & Taille
Territorial expansion
Enlarged state of France
EFFECTIVE TAXES
King didn't use the Estates General to tax people after 1484
Gabelle
Tax on salt instituted to raise money
Taille
Tax on the peasant's land
Ruthless ruler
Open rebellion against father Charles VII
Banished from Court
Seized land & eliminated rebellious vassals
Created postal service
War of Roses
1455-1485
House of York
vs.
House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster ruled until 1461 when Edward IV of York took over
He increased the power and finances of the monarchy causing disruptive violence at the local level
Richard III usurped power from Edward's sons in 1484
Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeated Richard III on Bosworth Field in 1485
Used justices of the peace (unpaid local officials) to handle things on the local level
Did not use parliament to collect funds
Used middle class people as his chief ministers
Collected money from feudal dues and taxes on imports
Did not keep a standing army
Until the mid 15th century, the Iberian Peninsula was controlled by...
Castille
Aragon
Portugal
Navarre
Granada
United when Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469
Replaced nobles with middle class in government positions
Grandchild, Charles I, was the 1st ruler of all of Spain
Expelled Muslims from Granada
Forced Jews to convert
Conversos or New Christians = new converts
well-educated & held positions in government, church, medicine, law, & business
Persecuted those who would not follow under the Inquisition
"Purity of Blood" laws
Christianized all of Spain
Married a York to solidify throne
Improved the court system by creating the Court of Star Chamber
Also known as Henry VII
Limited the power of the aristocracy
Generated loyalty among the middle class because he did not tax them
Led England to prosperity and peace
THE RENAISSANCE & THE RISE OF NEW MONARCHIES
Created a system of electing the Emperor with the Golden Bull in 1356
Created a Reichstag to balance the rights of the Emperor with the rights of the princes
Hapsburg dynasty controlled position of HRE after 1438
Used marriage to take over land (Austria married into Burgandy and later into Spain)
Promoted overseas exploration
Controlled the church by appointing bishops in Spain & Hispanic territories in America
CHARLES VII
LOUIS XI
EDWARD IV OF YORK
RICHARD III
HENRY TUDOR
4 min
2 min
CPANG
2 min
• New Monarchies
• Charles VII
• Gabelle
• Taille
• Louis XI
• War of Roses
• Edward IV of York
• Richard III
• Henry VII/Tudor
• Court of Star Chamber
• CPANG
• Isabella & Ferdinand
• Inquisition
• Charles I
• Reichstag

Taboo Review
Used Machiavellian methods to restore royal prestige, crush the power of the nobility, and to establish order & law at the local level
How to deal with aristocratic threats?
When he died, he left the country...
at peace domestically/internationally
with a treasury
an expanded wool trade
the dignity of royalty enhanced
Who fixed these problems?
REST
"The Universal Spider"
Concordat of Bologna
Established crown over church authority
Between Francis I and Pope Leo X
Allowed the French ruler to control the appointment of bishops
• New Monarchies
• Charles VII
• REST
• Gabelle
• Taille
• Louis XI
• Concordat of Bologna

Taboo Review
• War of Roses
• York
• Lancaster
• Edward IV
• Richard III
• Henry Tudor/VII
• Court of Star Chamber

Taboo Review
Pursued a common foreign policy
Allowed CPANG to maintain their own cortes, laws, courts, and system of taxation
Grandson, Charles V, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, and the HRE
• CPANG
• Isabella & Ferdinand
• Cortes
• New Christians
• Inquisition
• “Purity of Blood” laws
• Charles I
• Charles V

Taboo Review
Full transcript