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Neuroscience of Eating

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by

Jason Whetten

on 13 November 2017

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Transcript of Neuroscience of Eating

Neuroscience of Ingestive Behavior
Regulatory Mechanisms
Homeostasis
System Variable
Set Point
Detector
Correctional Mechanism
Negative Feedback
Satiety Mechanisms
THIRST
Two Major Areas of Fluid
Inside the Cell (Intracellular)
Outside the Cell (Intravascular) (Interstitial)
Osmometric Thirst - Inside the Cell
Interstitial solute concentration (salt) increases
or Interstitial fluid decreases
Intracellular Fluid Decreases (Osmosis)
Detected by
Osmoreceptors
on
OVLT
Alerts the
Median Preoptic Nucleus
Sensation of thirst/ Desire to drink
Volumetric Thirst - Outside the Cell
Blood flow decrease in kidneys
Kidneys secrete
Renin
Renin converts plasma to
Angiotensin
Angiotensin acts on
SFO
Alerts
Median Preoptic Nucleus
Sensation of thirst/ Desire to drink
Triggers:
Retention of Sodium
Retention of Water
Increase in blood pressure
HUNGER
Environmental Cues of Eating
What starts a Meal?
Ghrelin
Brain Factors
Glucoprivation
Lipoprivation
Liver to Vagus Nerve
What Stops a Meal?
Satiety Signals
Short-term
Nose and Mouth
Gastric Information
Decrease in Ghrelin
Increase in CCK
Increase in PYY
Liver information
Insulin
Long-term
Leptin
Increase metabolism
Increase body temp
Increase in activity
Eat less
NEURAL BASE OF EATING
Brain Stem
Decerebration
Hypothalamus
Lateral Hypothalamus
Ventromedial Area
Hunger Chemicals
Orexin
Melanin Concentrating Hormone (MCH)
Neuropeptide Y
Endocannabanoids
Leptin
Anorexins
Neuroscience of Obesity
Mutation of Leptin Gene
Anorexia/ Bulimia
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Preoccupation with weight that results in excessive weight loss
Preoccupation with weight resulting in a Binge/Purge Cycle
MOST RECENT INFORMATION
50% of those is an ED have MDD
86% before age 20
Somatosensory Cortex Difference
Too much serotonin - Anorexia
Not enough serotonin - Bulemia

Duodenum
Heredity of Metabolism
Food Intake vs. Energy Expenditure
Laura Hill
Decrease in food availability leads to higher activity
Is Food Addictive?
Just some foods? Which?
SUGAR
Treatments?
Characteristic to be regulated
Optimal level of characteristic
Monitors system variable
Restores to Set Point
To detector to turn off correctional mechanism
Mechanisms that inhibit correctional mechanism before homeostasis is met
Eating Addiction or Food Addiction?
Insula
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