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Teaching Conjunctions in the Classroom and Applying Sentence Functions in Writing
Transcript of Teaching Conjunctions in the Classroom and Applying Sentence Functions in Writing
S. Ranjeetha Sivajanam (811939)
Aishah Zainol Rahim (811918) Teaching Conjunctions in the Classroom
Applying Sentence Functions in Writing In addition to classifying sentences by the number of clauses they contain, you can pigeonhole sentences according to their functions.
There are several sentence functions which include: What are conjunctions? A conjunction is a word which is used to link or join words, phrases, or clauses. In a sentence, most of conjunctions are from another parts of speech, especially from prepositions (Kardimin, 2004:167). In simple English:
A conjunction is like glue. It helps things to stick together How to teach conjunctions
Why teach them this way? Declarative Sentences Declarative sentences are sentences that form a statement. It ends with a full stop or period. Examples:
Tomorrow I will go to the store.
Yesterday I left school early.
I told her to wear the blue skirt.
She did not want to eat the pizza that I gave her.
We walked to the mall together. How to remember coordinating conjunctions:
For - used to show a relationship between things
And - connects things that are alike or joined together
Nor - used to offer a negative choice
But - used to connect things that are different or separated
Or - used to offer a choice
Yet - used to show a change
So - used to show a relationship between things Exclamatory Sentences Exclamatory sentences are sentences that attempt to express powerful feelings, or emotions. They end with an exclamation mark. (!) Three Types of Conjunctions Examples:
I love you so much!
I can't believe this, I am so upset! Coordinating Conjunctions Connect words, phrases and clauses of equal value e.g. Sharon and Jessica went to school.
Victoria can sing or play the guitar.
Priscilla's car is good but Ken's bicycle is better. Interrogative Interrogative sentences are the sentences that form a question. They end with a question mark (?) Example:
What did the teacher say to you yesterday?
Did you go to the movies yesterday? Imperative Imperative sentences are sentences that make a command or request; Example:
Get me some water.
Leave that cat alone.
Make me a sandwich. Tag Subordinating Conjunctions How to remember subordinating conjunctions:
B U D I S W I S E
Before Unless Despite In order that Since While If Since Even though
B U T H O T
Because Until That How Once Than
A A A
After Although (though) As
W W W
Whether When (Whenever) Where (Wherever) We can use a combination of approaches to teach sentence functions Activity 1 Students are given a text or book . Students find examples of sentence functions from text and write in a post it
Declarative statements - Blue
Exclamatory statements - Pink
Interrogative statents - Yellow Connect ideas of unequal value e.g. independent clause with dependent clause Approach - CLT, Discovery A comma is used to subordinate the first clause e.g. When Dipesh woke up, Abel jumped on him. If no comma is used, the second clause is subordinate e.g. Abel jumped on Dipesh when he woke up. A statement followed by a mini-question. The whole sentence is a "tag question", and the mini-question at the end is called a "question tag".
A tag sentence seeks confirmation. Why? Student can see the patterns in writing Activity 2 Approach - Grammar translation,CLT, Audio-lingual 1. Silent way
2. Grammar translation method
3. Communicative Language Teaching
4. Total physical response
5. Audio-lingual method - dialogue Activity 3 1. Declarative
5. Tag Example:
He reads a lot of books, doesn't he?
She is coming, isn't she? Students learn inflections when reading the different sentence functions.
Teacher reads sentences and students punctuate the sentences. Why? Student familiarize themselves in spoken and written English Approach - CLT, Audio-lingual etc. Class is divided into 3 groups: Declarative, Interrogative, Exclamatory. 1 student from each group will role play a situation given by students.
Students later can write the
conversation. Why? Students can practice speaking and know how to use them in real-life situation. Sample Activity 1: Blanks are an ESL student's best friend Method: Grammar Translation
Technique: Memorization, Fill-in-the-blanks
Students are given a table of conjunctions together with their functions to memorize
Students are given a series of fill-in-the-blank sentences to complete
e.g. Connie was confused ____ she missed the bus. [so]
________ TJ is a girl, she ties up her hair. [Since] Why?
Basic and straightforward
Helps build solid language foundations Sample Activity 3: Drill Sergeant Method: Audio-Lingual
Students repeat after teacher e.g.:
Teacher: Aishah is hip.
Students: Aishah is hip.
Teacher: Kok Hin is hip.
Students: Kok Hin is hip.
Teacher: Aishah and Kok Hin are hip.
Students: Aishah and Kok Hin are hip. Why?
Students develop listening and speaking skills in addition to remembering the rules
Pronunciation is drilled into students via repeated practice
Students form good language habits Sample Activity 2: Figure it out! Method: Direct
Technique: Induction i.e. Students discover meaning of conjunctions from text based on the two clauses linked together
Teacher gives students a text to read and instructs students to highlight conjunctions
e.g. Mildred crept out of the room once Ranjeetha had fallen asleep
Teacher: What is the meaning of the word in orange? Why?
Engages higher-level students who may be bored by repetitive methods
Encourages curiosity and problem-solving skills
Grammar is taught in a practical manner
Meaning is directly connected to words Sample Activity 4: Putting everything together Method: CLT
Technique: Scrambled Sentences; Language Games
Teacher provides groups of 3 students with sentence cards and conjunction cards
The first student will choose the first word / phrase / clause e.g. Pei Jing is married.
The second student will choose the conjunction e.g. but
The third student will attempt to fit the second word / phrase / clause to form a meaningful sentence e.g. Pei Jing is married but Ratna is not.
Authentic materials e.g. pictures may be used to provide additional meaning
As an extension activity, students can search for conjunctions in a word game (e.g. word search / bingo) and then use them in a meaningful sentence Why?
Emphasizes all four skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing)
Students have an incentive to learn the language in a relatable context
Stimulates students' minds e.g. via brainstorming Sentence Types The structure of a sentence refers to the types of parts in the sentence as well as the way(s) these parts are put together Simple sentences
Complex sentences Correlating Conjunctions Connect two balanced words, phrases, or clauses
e.g. Neither Joon Kee nor Soon Seng have a girlfriend.
Such is Suet Li's charm that many fall at her feet.
Not only is Ranjeetha intelligent, but she is also beautiful. How to remember correlating conjunctions:
both-and from-to whether-or
A B C D E F G
as-as such-that not-but neither-nor
H I J K L M N O P
not only - but also
Q R S T U V
Y & Z
either-or as-so so-that
Now I know my A, B, C’s
if - then such - as between-and
Next time won’t you sing with me? Simple Sentence A car has an engine so it can move. One independent clause Susan had a cat. COMPOUND SENTENCES A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. These clauses are connected either with a semi-colon or with a comma and coordinating conjunction.
Question Time :
What are coordinating conjunctions? Toby wanted to become a doctor; he applied to medical
Toby wanted to become a doctor, so he applied to
medical school. and Two independent clauses joined by a connective. Susan had a cat and it was black. A complex sentence consists of one independent clause connected to one or more dependent clauses.
A dependent clause is like an independent clause; however, the dependent clause is preceded by a subordinating element such as after, because, during, even though, however, if, since, though, unless, and while. COMPLEX SENTENCES A trailer has no engine so it can’t move. A car has an engine so it can move One sub-ordinate clause One independent clause. One independent clause joined by a connective to a
sub-ordinate clause. Susan had a cat since she was young.
Filling in gaps in sentences with new words or items of a particular grammar type.
Use Words in Sentences
Students create sentences to illustrate that they know the meaning and the use of new words.
Why: To reinforce new knowledge/ practice exercises Grammar Translation Peer Correction
Student are encouraged to help each other in a cooperative and not competitive spirit.
Students are invited to make observations about the day’s lesson and what they have learned. Silent Way Students study the basic communicative expressions in the dialogue or one of the structures that exemplifies the function, using pictures, real objects, or dramatization to clarify the meaning. Communicative Language Teaching Authentic Materials:
This may be a newspaper article, weather forecasting, time tables and menus.
Why: By using authentic materials in lessons, students are able to make real world connections.
Scrambled sentences, treasure hunt. SIMPLE SENTENCES A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. How to teach sentence types?
Why teach them this way? APPROACHES, METHODS,
Question time :
1) Lisa drove.
2) Lisa drove her car from Minneapolis to Milwaukee.
3) Lisa drove her 13-year-old, rusty Mustang from
Minneapolis to Milwaukee on a steamy July day. Why: -To encourage collaboration
-A sense of ownership
- Reflections help to identify learning processes and clear jumbled thoughts. Why: Grammar becomes fun and interesting.