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Copy of Multigrade Teaching and Learning

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reginns jumilla

on 20 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Multigrade Teaching and Learning

Multigrade Teaching
and Learning

What is Multigrade Teaching?
A multigrade class has two or more Grade of children with one teacher and one program, in one classroom for a school year or longer. Sometimes this is called – a ‘combination class’ (if there are only two grades) in the Philippines.
What is Multigrade Teaching?
In other countries, multigrade classess can also be called –

Vertically grouped, or
Family grouped or
Multiaged classes
Multigrade classes are established to improve access to education for all Filipinos in the most economic way. In some private schools and overseas schools, multigrade classes are established for academic reasons also.
Why do we need multigrade classes?
Economic Reasons

Educational Reasons
Access
Academic
Why do we need multigrade classes?
"What I hear, I forget,

What I hear, and see, I remember a little.

What I hear, see and ask questions about or discuss with someone else, I begin to understand.

What I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire knowledge and skill.

What I teach to another, I master.”

1. Subject Staggering Option

2. Subject Integration Option

3. Common Time Table

4. Integrated Day Option

5. Subject Grouping
Modified Curriculum and Instruction
Subject Staggering Option
Grade I - MAKABAYAN
Edukasyon sa Kagandahang Asal at Wastong Pag-uugali:
Napananatiling malinis ang paligid
Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng Katawan: Naisasagawa ng iba’t ibang bahagi ng katawan ang iba’t ibang hugis
Sining: Nakabubuo ng disenyo na binubuo ng iba’t ibang hugis sa pamamagitan ng finger painting
Musika: Nakaaawit nang may tamang tono – tungkol sa magandang tanawin/ kapaligiran
Magagandang Tanawin at
Pook Pasyalan
Nakikilala ang magagandang tanawin sa pook-pasyalan ng sariling pook/bansa
Subject Integration Option
Common Time Table
Integrated Day Option

 No fixed timetable
 Pupils are free to choose what
subject to study and when
(Children are allowed to choose an activity based from the week’s theme)
Subject Grouping Option
Community life and school activities lend more easily to mutual integration since multigrade schools are located in communities with small population.

The more parents are involved in their children’s education, the more they would likely to succeed in school.

MG schools have less resources, thus, the need to involve the community as sources of information and in providing for services and materials to improve the school.
Community Participation
2. DECS Order No. 96, 1997
“Policies and Guidelines in the Organization and Operation of Multigrade Classes”
Policy/Issuance
DECS Order No. 38, s. 1993
“Improving Access to Elementary Education By Providing Complete Grade Levels in all Public Elementary Schools Through Combination and/or Multigrade Class”
6. DepEd Memo No. 245 s. 2007
“2007 Search for Multigrade Teacher Achiever”
5. DepEd Memo No. 404 s. 2004
“Dissemination of the Training Video on Multigrade Instruction”
4. DECS Order No. 27, s. 2000
“Institutionalization of Community Support Scheme (CSS) as one of the Best Practices of the MPPE”
Policy/Issuance
3. DECS Order No. 91, s. 1997
“Special Hardship Allowance for Multigrade Teachers”
8. DepEd Memo No. 289 s. 2008
“National Training-Workshop for Trainers on Multigrade Instruction”
Policy/Issuance
7. DepEd Memo No. 155, s. 2008
“Awarding Ceremony for the 2007 Search for Multigrade Teacher Achiever”
What are the benefits of multigrade teaching and learning?
Each member of the group will write the possible benefits of multigrade teaching and learning to the learners and to the teachers in an idea card.
After brainstorming, idea card will be pasted in a manila paper.
The group will choose a reporter and discuss their output in the plenary.
Session 2 Activity 2.1
A multiaged class brings together children of different ages and stages of development in a learning environment, which prepares them for real-life situations. A multiaged classroom is a more natural learning situation: for example, older children naturally helping younger ones.
The children often develop healthier social relationships and more positive attitudes. They get on better with others, both children and adults.
The children will learn to be resourceful and more independent, self-directed learners and gain the skills and attitudes of learning how to learn
The children can learn social skills when working together in small groups, for example, leadership skills, organizational skills, listening, sharing, taking turns, mentoring, negotiating skills
The children can progress at their own pace of learning with the opportunities to join a faster or slower group. Younger children benefit from the positive models of older children
Benefits for children
Good multigrade teachers do not use the ‘chalk and talk’ style of teaching (or lecturing).They have to be flexible and use other excellent teaching and learning methods and strategies, for example - - cooperative group work, individualized instruction, activity-centered approaches, group project work, cross-age peer-tutoring etc. They become better all-round teachers, capable of tackling a wide variety of situations.
Teachers can make the most of the inter-age multi-level situation to facilitate the learning processes. The older children can be responsible and given opportunities to use their expertise with the younger children.
The teacher gets to know the children better as individuals when teaching them for 2 or 3 years and is thus able to give them the right kind of help and guidance to suit the children’s individual needs.
Teachers learn to work with different age groups and deal with curriculum content across subject areas in an integrated approach
Teachers can share the responsibility of teaching learning with the students, parents and other community members
Benefits for teachers
What does a successful multigrade teacher do?
Successful multigrade teachers, just like all good teachers, are well prepared and well organized. They have an open mind and like to try out new ideas and be flexible and creative in their practice. They believe in the importance of creating a co-operative, family-type atmosphere in the classroom. They will also have the ability to build solid, close relationships iw the community so that, in time, parents will come to believe more strongly in the benefits for their child in a multigrade class.
A good knowledge of their students
A collection of good co-operative learning games, activities and strategies
A good understanding of curriculum (BEC)
Time-efficient planning techniques
Flexible time management
A variety of teaching and learning strategies
Good practices of a successful mutigrade teachers
To have a good knowledge and understanding of each of the individual students in their class
Indicator of a successful multigrade teacher
Session 2 Activity 2.2
In a combined class, list out the activities/works that can be done by an individual or by a group in a classroom or in the school campus or even outside the school.
Think, Pair, Share
Session 2 Activity 2.3
Think about the type of information teachers need to collect each student so they can plan an effective learning program for each student’s needs.
Think about this information on your own for 3 minutes.
Turn to another person and in pairs talk about what information you need to know about your students early in the school year.
Write the student information (key words) on the table below, for example – language, age, performance levels, interests, worries, goals for the year, health……
Write how you can find out this information, for example – ask the student or talk to last year’s teacher or have a conference with their parents or observe the student in/outside of the classroom…..
Share your information together with the whole group.
Session 3:
Principles of Learning

A supportive learning environment
Opportunity to learn
Connection and challenge
Action and reflection
Motivation and purpose
Inclusivity and difference
Independence and collaboration
Principles of Learning
The graded school, in the Philippines, traditionally separates students on the basis of the number of years in school. The multigrade classroom however, is similar to the home or workplace learning situation.

The focus in a multigrade class is about –

What the individual learners can do and what they need to learn next.
In the multigrade classroom the students can learn from each other and with each other.
How can multigrade classes promote these seven principles of learning
ENVOY
Session 3 Activity
An envoy is someone who is sent on a mission to represent the interests of other.
Each group selects one person to be the envoy
How could the principles be applied in the classroom?
Write a Principle and an example of what could be happening in the classroom to support that principle of learning
At a given time (15 minutes), by the trainer, the envoys move to another group (with their recording paper) and report to them what has been discussed in their group
The envoy listens to a report from the group they are visiting and adds to their list examples of good practice
At a given time, the envoy returns to their home group and shares the new ideas discussed.
Each group can share a different example with the whole group.
Session 4:
Reflective Journal
Reflective thinking and writing is an important part of the learning process. It involves deeper thinking about something, which often raises questions and creates problems to solve. For example,
“I really enjoyed doing………….activity today because……… but how can I do that in my classroom?”
Reflective thinking also involves analyzing something and making judgments. For example,
“that learning strategy would work well with older students because……….. but I think I would need to change ……………….. to work well in my young class because……….”
Reflective Journal
Reflective thinking
Session 4 Activity
At the end of each activity, write about your learning in your Reflective Journal. Think about what you have learnt during the day. Ask yourself these questions and summarize them in your journal.
What did I enjoy learning today?
What was I good at?
What would I like to learn more about?
How can I adapt an activity we did to suit my own school or class situation?
Who did I enjoy working with today?
What did I learn from the other people attending the in-service?
How can I share that information with other teachers?
What was stopping me from learning well today?
What/who was helping me to learn today?
Session 5:
Creating a Cooperative Learning Environment
The role of the teacher is very important for the success of cooperative learning groups in the classroom. As the student are learning the cooperative learning skills they need to be - -
Modeled
Clearly taught and
Reinforced as the students are learning and using them
The Role of the Teacher
Explaining the co-operative skill
Practicing the skills in co-operative
Giving feedback and reflection
Creating posters or charts for the classroom
Teaching these skills can be done by the following methods:
Example of Y Chart created by a class learning about working in groups
Example of a class chart which could be made and illustrated by the students when learning about cooperative learning skills and working in groups
The first Principle of Learning (listed in Session 3) is to establish a supportive learning environment where students feel valued and challenged and are able to work together collaboratively. We learn when our emotions are positive.
Creating a Cooperative Learning Environment
What is cooperative learning?
Cooperative learning involves students working together in small teams or groups on a shared task to achieve a common objective. Each student may be responsible for a specific part of the group task and the group will only be successful if everyone does their work.
For students to work together in a cooperative team or group, they will need to be taught specific cooperative learning skills. Teach one or two of these skills at a time as the students need to improve different ways to work together.
Cooperative Learning Skills
Active listening
Taking turns
Asking good questions
Respecting others
Negotiating
Sharing
Helping and encouraging others
Problem solving
Decision making
Conflict resolution
Eye contact
Assertive speaking – “I…” and they do not blame others or expect them to give up their rights. For example, “ I feel uncomfortable when you say/do that… …” or “I think that is unfair because… … … …”
In the multigrade class, there will be a wide range of abilities. In mixed cooperative learning groups all students can contribute to the group task according to their level of skills and maturity.
 
The students learn from each other by actively participating, hearing and seeing what others can do. They are more motivated to work and usually learn more. Students are more likely to develop respect for each other and their efforts as well as more tolerance of other’s differences. Cooperative learning helps build a positive supportive classroom environment.
Why is cooperative learning a useful strategy for multigrade classes?
Organizing
Makabayan projects
Team games
Clarifying ideas
Peer teaching
Topic related discussions or projects
Speaking and listening tasks
Science projects
Discussing class/school issues
Solving Math problems
Writing group stories and plays
Reading and analyzing texts
Art projects
Cooperative learning groups can be used across the curriculum for many different purposes such as:
Co-operative games are fun ways for students to learn and practice their co-operative skills together. These skills are necessary for effective group work in a multigrade (and single-grade) class. These co-operative activities can be integrated into the program or may be useful between lessons, before a break time or when a particular skill needs to be practiced. They can also be used for the following purposes:

Making decisions
To practice sharing and taking turns
To practice helping others
For talking positively and encouraging each other
Active listening and asking good questions
Co-operative Games
Many competitive games can be modified (or changed a little) so that there are no losers to become cooperative games. For example:
 
‘Chasey’ – a competitive game when two or three ‘catchers’ chase and touch others to eliminate them. Those students who are ‘out’ have to sit out until the game is over. However, instead of eliminating children from the game, the game could be changed to cooperative game such as –
‘Stuck in the mud’ – when someone has been touched (caught) she/he has to stand still with their arms stretched out. They can be ‘freed’ and join in the game again, when they are touched on the hand by someone who is still free to run around.

Playing this game means that no-one is eliminated (‘out’) and the students are encouraged to help each other.
Selecting cooperative games and activities:
Competitive or cooperative?
Examples of class posters created with the children when learning about cooperative learning skills
Cooperative Group Roles
Group Games
On your group, decide who is the –
Organizer – who gets the group going and keeps them on task
Encourager – who encourages good ideas from everyone in the group
Recorder – who records or writes down the group’s ideas
Reporter – who reports back to the whole class, another group ot to the teacher
Each group will be given their own answer to read and discuss. This answer can be kept a secret from the other groups. (The organizer can get the group started)
After the group has discussed their answer, brainstorm as many questions as you can that could answer. (The encourager and the organizer can help everyone to contribute)
The recorder can write down the questions decided by the group.
The reporter can report the questions back to the whole group.
The whole group can then guess what the answer was for each group’s questions.
To evaluate, after having done each tasks, every member will then make their own Y-chart based on their experience on their task.
Session 5 Activity:
What’s the Question?
Session 6:

Same but different: Organizing the Physical Learning Environment
In a multigrade classroom, there is a wide ramge of ages, abilities, maturity and interest among the students. To meet these different learning needs, a variety of materials will be required, so it is important for both the teacher and the students to have a well organized classroom. Then everyone will understand –
Where to find things,
How to store things
Where to sit for different activities
Where to put completed work and
Where to find some extra work (e.g. in a learning center)

Organizing the Physical Learning Environment in a multigrade class
A well organized classroom will contain:
space
a variety of different learning center spaces
floor space
spaces for small group work
places for students to work independently
display area
flexible desk/chair combinations
a reading area
storage area
a roster
Organizing the physical space
Seating plans and classroom layout
This is a very formal arrangement. The students are facing the teacher and not their classmates. They are also all facing the blackboard.
Another lay-out is one based on same ability groups, that is, groups based on the performance levels of the children in the various subjects.
An example of a good multigrade classroom
Draw a classroom plan (on your own) for a multigrade class and consider the following questions:
What work spaces are needed to motivate the students and cater for different interests, topics and strategies for learning? (e.g. learning center)
How can the resources be stored and made readily accessible for everyone?
What local resources could you use for storage, dividing areas and display purposes?
(20 minutes)
Find someone else who has a different plan. Explain your plan and your answers to the 3 questions above. Listen to their explanation about their plan.
How are your ideas different?
How are your ideas the same?
Display your plans for others to see.
Session 6 Activity:
Same but Different
Session 7:
Learning center are an important teaching and learning tool in a multigrade class because students can work independently or in groups with minimal supervision from the teacher. It is an area of a classroom where students go to learn new knowledge and practice skills independently. Importantly, they will include self-instructional materials, which may range from –
Lists of things to do (or choose from)
Activity cards or task cards,
Self-checking work cards,
Games
Special activities related to a class theme or topic
In a multigrade class there needs to be a variety of tasks for different students needing different level of work.
A learning center could include task cards requiring different levels of thinking. For example, -
Easier level task cards
Second level of thinking
Third level of thinking
The task cards could be color coded in some way to show the different levels of difficulty. Some task cards could have open-ended activities for all students to complete at their own level – e.g. one problem with many different solutions.
Catering different grades
A Group Task Board is a useful management tool that shows which group they are working in and which activities they can choose from.

To make a Group Taskboard you will need –
A display board
A task label
Name labels
Two T cards
Managing Learning Centers in the classroom
Divide the Group Task Board into 4 sections (horizontally) or if the class numbers are over 28, then 5 or 6 sections may be necessary for 5 or 6 working groups.
Then divide the board into 2 sections (vertically) – a smaller column on the left for the students’ names and a wider column on the right for the tasks.

When the students’ names are written on separate labels then they can be easily grouped in the same ability groups sometimes or in mixed ability groups. This will depend on the activity and the students’ needs fro the application.
Group Task Board
Adapting activities in the Teacher’s Manual
Changing your own lesson plan activities – write them on task cards for the student to read and practice what they did last week
Talking to other teachers to share ideas
Asking the students to design task cards, activities or games related to a topic for others to complete
Inviting the Materials Development Center to come to your Division for a workshop to make self-instruction activities
Ideas for Learning Center activities and tasks can be collected by:
In this activity, each group should make a Lesson Plan using the following approaches of Multigrade Teaching and Learning:

Group 1 - Subject Staggering Option
Group 2 - Subject Integration Option
Group 3 - Common Time Table
Group 4 - Integrated Day Option
Group 5 - Subject Grouping
Activity 7
Full transcript